Outline of Jesus' First Discourse: True Discipleship - Matthew 5:1-7:29 A. INTRODUCTION TO THE FIRST DISCOURSE 5:1-2 B. DISCIPLESHIP: CHARACTERISTICS AND BLESSINGS 5:3-12 i. Lack towards God 5:3-6 ii. Virtues towards Others 5:7-10 iii. Further Exposition on Persecution 5:11-12 C. DISCIPLES IN THE WORLD 5:13-16 i. Salt 5:13 ii. Light 5:14-16 C'. DISCIPLES AND RIGHTEOUSNESS 5:17-7:12 i. Principles of Righteousness 5:17-20 A. Jesus Fulfills the Old Testament 5:17 B. Reason 5:18 A'. Disciples Should Keep and Teach the Old Testament 5:19 B'. Reason 5:20 ii. Common Understanding of the Law Versus Kingdom Truth 5:21-48 a. Murder and Reconciliation 5:21-26 A. Common Understanding 5:21 B. Kingdom Truth 5:22 C. Application 5:23-26 b. Adultery and Purity 5:27-30 A. Common Understanding 5:27 B. Kingdom Truth 5:28 C. Application 5:29-30 c. Divorce and Remarriage 5:31-32 A. Common Understanding 5:31 B. Kingdom Truth 5:32 d. Vows and Truthfulness 5:33-37 A. Common Understanding 5:33 B. Kingdom Truth 5:34-36 C. Application 5:37 e. Revenge and Self-Sacrifice 5:38-42 A. Common Understanding 5:38 B. Kingdom Truth 5:39-42 f. Hatred and Love 5:43-47 A. Common Understanding 5:43 B. Kingdom Truth 5:44-47 g. Summary 5:48 iii. Common Religious Practice versus Kingdom Piety 6:1-18 a. Introduction 6:1 b. Fulfilled Giving of Alms 6:2-4 A. Common Practice 6:2a B. Reward 6:2b A'. Kingdom Piety 6:3-4a B'. Reward 6:4b c. Fulfilled Prayer 6:5-6 A. Common Practice 6:5a B. Reward 6:5b A'. Kingdom Piety 6:6a B'. Reward 6:6b d. Unfulfilled Prayer 6:7-8 e. The Model Prayer 6:9-13 1. Introduction 6:9a 2. Heaven 6:9b-10 3. Earth 6:11-13a 4. Doxology 6:13b f. Forgiveness 6:14-15 g. Fulfilled Fasting 6:16-18 A. Common Practice 6:16a B. Reward 6:16b A'. Kingdom Piety 6:17-18a B'. Reward 6:18b iv. Earthly Riches Versus Kingdom Treasure 6:19-34 a. God or Mammon 6:19-24 1. Treasures: in Heaven or on Earth 6:19-21 2. Eyes: Clear or Bad 6:22-23 3. Masters: God or Mammon 6:24 b. Do Not Worry 6:25-34 1. Do Not Worry - Life Is More Than Physical Needs 6:25-30 2. Do Not Worry - Seek First the Kingdom 6:31-33 3. Do Not Worry - Take Each Day as It Comes 6:34 v. Worldly Relationships Versus Kingdom Relationships 7:1-6 a. Judging Others 7:1-5 1. Principle 7:1-2 2. Explanation 7:3-4 3. Application 7:5 b. Discerning Others 7:6 vi. Encouragement to Pray 7:7-11 1. Command 7:7 2. Reason 7:8 3. Argument 7:9-11 vii. Summary of Righteousness 7:12 B'. DISCIPLESHIP: CALL TO COMMITMENT 7:13-27 i. Two Paths - Take the Right One 7:13-14 ii. Two Trees - Avoid the Bad One 7:15-20 iii. Two Groups of People - Only One Will Enter the Kingdom 7:21-23 iv. Two Foundations - Build on the Right One 7:24-27 A'. CONCLUSION OF THE FIRST DISCOURSE 7:28-29
A. Introduction to the First Discourse
When Jesus saw the crowds, He went up on the mountain; and after He sat down, His disciples came to Him.
He opened His mouth and began to teach them, saying,
B. Discipleship: Characteristics and Blessings
A. First Set of Four: Our Lack towards God, Begin with "π"
“Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
“Blessed are those who mourn, for they shall be comforted.
“Blessed are the gentle, for they shall inherit the earth.
“Blessed are those who hunger and thirst for righteousness,
for they shall be satisfied.
A'. Second Set of Four: Response to Our Lack
“Blessed are the merciful, for they shall receive mercy.
“Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God.
“Blessed are the peacemakers, for they shall be called sons of God.
“Blessed are those who have been persecuted for the sake of righteousness,
for theirs is the kingdom of heaven.
B. Additional Exposition on Persecution
“Blessed are you when people insult you and persecute you, and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of Me.
Rejoice and be glad, for your reward in heaven is great; for in the same way they persecuted the prophets who were before you.
C. Disciples in the World
“You are the salt of the earth;
but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again?
It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men.
“You are the light of the world.
A city set on a hill cannot be hidden;
nor does anyone light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on the lampstand,
and it gives light to all who are in the house.
Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.
C’. Disciples and Righteousness
A. Principles of Righteousness
“Do not think that I came to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I did not come to abolish but to fulfill.
Jesus Fulfills the Old Testament
For truly I say to you, until heaven and earth pass away, not the smallest letter or stroke shall pass from the Law until all is accomplished.
Whoever then annuls one of the least of these commandments, and teaches others to do the same, shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but whoever keeps and teaches them, he shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven.
Disciples Should Keep and Teach the Old Testament
“For I say to you that unless your righteousness surpasses that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will not enter the kingdom of heaven.
B1. Common Understanding of the Law Versus Kingdom Truth
“You have heard that the ancients were told, ‘You shall not commit murder’ and ‘Whoever commits murder shall be liable to the court.’
Murder and Reconciliation
But I say to you that everyone who is angry with his brother shall be guilty before the court; and whoever says to his brother, ‘You good- for- nothing,’ shall be guilty before the supreme court; and whoever says, ‘You fool,’ shall be guilty enough to go into the fiery hell.
Therefore if you are presenting your offering at the altar, and there remember that your brother has something against you,
leave your offering there before the altar and go; first be reconciled to your brother, and then come and present your offering.
Make friends quickly with your opponent at law while you are with him on the way, so that your opponent may not hand you over to the judge, and the judge to the officer, and you be thrown into prison.
Truly I say to you, you will not come out of there until you have paid up the last cent.
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall not commit adultery’;
Adultery and Purity
but I say to you that everyone who looks at a woman with lust for her has already committed adultery with her in his heart.
If your right eye makes you stumble, tear it out and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to be thrown into hell.
If your right hand makes you stumble, cut it off and throw it from you; for it is better for you to lose one of the parts of your body, than for your whole body to go into hell.
“It was said, ‘Whoever sends his wife away, let him give her a certificate of divorce’;
Divorce and Remarriage
but I say to you that everyone who divorces his wife, except for the reason of unchastity, makes her commit adultery; and whoever marries a divorced woman commits adultery.
“Again, you have heard that the ancients were told, ‘You shall not make false vows, but shall fulfill your vows to the Lord.’
Oaths and Integrity
But I say to you, make no oath at all, either by heaven, for it is the throne of God,
or by the earth, for it is the footstool of His feet, or by Jerusalem, for it is the city of the great King.
Nor shall you make an oath by your head, for you cannot make one hair white or black.
But let your statement be, ‘Yes, yes’ or ‘No, no’; anything beyond these is of evil.
“You have heard that it was said, ‘An eye for an eye, and a tooth for a tooth.’
Vengeance and Self-Sacrifice
But I say to you, do not resist an evil person; but whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also.
If anyone wants to sue you and take your shirt, let him have your coat also.
Whoever forces you to go one mile, go with him two.
Give to him who asks of you, and do not turn away from him who wants to borrow from you.
“You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’
Hatred and Love
But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you,
so that you may be sons of your Father who is in heaven; for He causes His sun to rise on the evil and the good, and sends rain on the righteous and the unrighteous.
For if you love those who love you, what reward do you have? Do not even the tax collectors do the same?
If you greet only your brothers, what more are you doing than others? Do not even the Gentiles do the same?
Therefore you are to be perfect, as your heavenly Father is perfect.
Summary of Common understanding Versus Kingdom Truth
B2. Common Religious Observance Versus Kingdom Piety
“Beware of practicing your righteousness before men to be noticed by them; otherwise you have no reward with your Father who is in heaven.
Introduction to Common Practice Versus Kingdom Piety
“So when you give to the poor, do not sound a trumpet before you, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, so that they may be honored by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.
Fulfilled Giving Alms
But when you give to the poor, do not let your left hand know what your right hand is doing,
so that your giving will be in secret; and your Father who sees what is done in secret will reward you.
“When you pray, you are not to be like the hypocrites; for they love to stand and pray in the synagogues and on the street corners so that they may be seen by men. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.
But you, when you pray, go into your inner room, close your door and pray to your Father who is in secret, and your Father who sees what is done in secret will reward you.
“And when you are praying, do not use meaningless repetition as the Gentiles do, for they suppose that they will be heard for their many words.
So do not be like them; for your Father knows what you need before you ask Him.
“Pray, then, in this way:
The Model Prayer
‘Our Father who is in heaven, Hallowed be Your name.
‘Your kingdom come. Your will be done, On earth as it is in heaven.
‘Give us this day our daily bread.
‘And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors.
‘And do not lead us into temptation, but deliver us from evil. [For Yours is the kingdom and the power and the glory forever. Amen.’]
For if you forgive others for their transgressions, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.
But if you do not forgive others, then your Father will not forgive your transgressions.
“Whenever you fast, do not put on a gloomy face as the hypocrites do, for they neglect their appearance so that they will be noticed by men when they are fasting. Truly I say to you, they have their reward in full.
But you, when you fast, anoint your head and wash your face
so that your fasting will not be noticed by men, but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees what is done in secret will reward you.
B3. Earthly Riches Versus Kingdom Treasure
“Do not store up for yourselves treasures on earth, where moth and rust destroy, and where thieves break in and steal.
God or Mammon
But store up for yourselves treasures in heaven, where neither moth nor rust destroys, and where thieves do not break in or steal;
for where your treasure is, there your heart will be also.
“The eye is the lamp of the body; so then if your eye is clear, your whole body will be full of light.
But if your eye is bad, your whole body will be full of darkness. If then the light that is in you is darkness, how great is the darkness!
“No one can serve two masters; for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and wealth.
“For this reason I say to you, do not be worried about your life, as to what you will eat or what you will drink; nor for your body, as to what you will put on. Is not life more than food, and the body more than clothing?
Do Not Worry
Look at the birds of the air, that they do not sow, nor reap nor gather into barns, and yet your heavenly Father feeds them. Are you not worth much more than they?
And who of you by being worried can add a single hour to his life?
And why are you worried about clothing? Observe how the lilies of the field grow; they do not toil nor do they spin,
yet I say to you that not even Solomon in all his glory clothed himself like one of these.
But if God so clothes the grass of the field, which is alive today and tomorrow is thrown into the furnace, will He not much more clothe you? You of little faith!
Do not worry then, saying, ‘What will we eat?’ or ‘What will we drink?’ or ‘What will we wear for clothing?’
For the Gentiles eagerly seek all these things; for your heavenly Father knows that you need all these things.
But seek first His kingdom and His righteousness, and all these things will be added to you.
“So do not worry about tomorrow; for tomorrow will care for itself. Each day has enough trouble of its own.
B4. Worldly Relationships Versus Kingdom Relationships
“Do not judge so that you will not be judged.
For in the way you judge, you will be judged; and by your standard of measure, it will be measured to you.
Why do you look at the speck that is in your brother’s eye, but do not notice the log that is in your own eye?
Or how can you say to your brother, ‘Let me take the speck out of your eye,’ and behold, the log is in your own eye?
You hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your brother’s eye.
“Do not give what is holy to dogs, and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces.
B5. Encouragement to Pray
“Ask, and it will be given to you; seek, and you will find; knock, and it will be opened to you.
For everyone who asks receives, and he who seeks finds, and to him who knocks it will be opened.
Or what man is there among you who, when his son asks for a loaf, will give him a stone?
Or if he asks for a fish, he will not give him a snake, will he?
If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your Father who is in heaven give what is good to those who ask Him!
A'. Summary of Righteousness
“In everything, therefore, treat people the same way you want them to treat you, for this is the Law and the Prophets.
B’. Discipleship: Call to Commitment
Two Paths - Take the Right One
“Enter through the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is broad that leads to destruction, and there are many who enter through it.
For the gate is small and the way is narrow that leads to life, and there are few who find it.
Two Trees - Beware of the Bad One
“Beware of the false prophets, who come to you in sheep’s clothing, but inwardly are ravenous wolves.
You will know them by their fruits.
Grapes are not gathered from thorn bushes nor figs from thistles, are they?
So every good tree bears good fruit, but the bad tree bears bad fruit.
A good tree cannot produce bad fruit, nor can a bad tree produce good fruit.
Every tree that does not bear good fruit is cut down and thrown into the fire.
So then, you will know them by their fruits.
Two Groups of People - Only One Will Enter the Kingdom
“Not everyone who says to Me, ‘Lord, Lord,’ will enter the kingdom of heaven, but he who does the will of My Father who is in heaven will enter.
Many will say to Me on that day, ‘Lord, Lord, did we not prophesy in Your name, and in Your name cast out demons, and in Your name perform many miracles?’
And then I will declare to them, ‘I never knew you; depart from Me, you who practice lawlessness.’
Two Foundations - Build on the Right One
“Therefore everyone who hears these words of Mine and acts on them,
A. Hear and Act
may be compared to a wise man who built his house on the rock.
B. Foundation - Stone
And the rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house;
and yet it did not fall, for it had been founded on the rock.
D. Result - Did Not Fall
Everyone who hears these words of Mine and does not act on them,
A'. Head and Do Not Act
will be like a foolish man who built his house on the sand.
B'. Foundation - Sand
The rain fell, and the floods came, and the winds blew and slammed against that house;
and it fell— and great was its fall.”
D'. Result - Great Fall
A’. Conclusion of the First Discourse
When Jesus had finished these words, the crowds were amazed at His teaching;
for He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as their scribes.