Main point summary
The Law teaches that since we are born through promise, set free by Christ, we must stand firm in that freedom.
Tell me, you who desire to be under the law, do you not listen to the law?
For it is written that Abraham had two sons,
e one by a slave woman
and f one by a free woman.
But g the son of the slave was born according to the flesh,
while h the son of the free woman was born through promise.
Now this may be interpreted allegorically:
these women are two i covenants.
j One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children for slavery;
she is Hagar.
Now Hagar is Mount Sinai in Arabia; 1
she corresponds to the present Jerusalem,
for she is in slavery with her children.
But k the Jerusalem above is free,
and she is our mother.
For it is written,
l “Rejoice, O barren one who does not bear;
break forth and cry aloud, you who are not in labor!
For the children of the desolate one will be more than those of the one who has a husband.”
Now you, 1 brothers, m like Isaac,
n are children of promise.
But just as at that time he who was born according to the flesh o persecuted him who was born according to the Spirit,
p so also it is now.
But what does the Scripture say?
q “Cast out the slave woman and her son,
for the son of the slave woman shall not inherit with the son of the free woman.”
So, brothers, we are not children of the slave
but r of the free woman.
For s freedom Christ has t set us free;
u stand firm therefore,
and do not submit again to v a yoke of w slavery.
Even though Abraham had two sons, only one was free and was born through promise.
This is an allegory: Hagar and Sarah represent two covenants - the Old and the New - whose children are in slavery or in freedom.
The heavenly Jerusalem, our mother, is free - for the Scripture prophesied that the children of promise would come from a barren woman.
Believers are children of promise, and are therefore persecuted; therefore, they should obey the Scripture and cast out the slave woman and her son.
The Scripture teaches that believers are descended from Abraham through the promise, and should separate from the children of slavery.