Romans 8:1–7
To those who are in Christ Jesus, there is no condemnation.
#inChrist
Published July 5th, 2017
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A 8: 1–7
D: 8:1–7
Notes
A 8: 1–7
editing
NT
Romans 8:1-8
na28
mine
Οὐδὲν ἄρα νῦν κατάκριμα τοῖς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.
Therefore [because of the realities about which I just wrote] [there is] now no condemnation for those who are in Christ Jesus.
ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου.
The reason for this is that the Law of the Spirit of life has freed you [from the oppressive authority] of the Law of sin and death.
Τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς
For here is what I mean : God (accomplished) what the Law deemed impossible for all those lived in sinful flesh (i.e., all sinners—esp. Israel, since God gave them the Law) The way God accomplished this is by sending his Son in the likeness of sinful flesh (i.e., as a human),
τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας
καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινεν τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί,
and [to make atonement for sin/to eliminate sin/to triumph over sin] he condemned sin in the flesh (i.e., in his death ).
series
actionmanner
ground
ἵνα τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ νόμου πληρωθῇ ἐν ἡμῖν τοῖς μὴ κατὰ σάρκα περιπατοῦσιν
The purpose for which God did this is so that the righteousness [which produces] the Law (or "the righteous Law") might be fulfilled in us—those who walk not according to the flesh
ἀλλὰ κατὰ πνεῦμα.
but according to the Spirit.
negativepositive
οἱ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ὄντες τὰ τῆς σαρκὸς φρονοῦσιν,
For those live continually according to [their] flesh bend their minds to the things of the flesh,
οἱ δὲ κατὰ πνεῦμα τὰ τοῦ πνεύματος.
but [on the contrary] those who live continually according to the Spirit bend their minds to the things of the Spirit.
alternative
τὸ γὰρ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς θάνατος,
[This is] because the mind of the flesh [is] death.
τὸ δὲ φρόνημα τοῦ πνεύματος ζωὴ καὶ εἰρήνη•
But [on the contrary] the mind of the Spirit is life and peace .
ideaexplanation
διότι τὸ φρόνημα τῆς σαρκὸς ἔχθρα εἰς θεόν,
[This is] because the mind of the flesh [is] hostile to God,
τῷ γὰρ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐχ ὑποτάσσεται,
because it does not subject to the Law of God,
οὐδὲ γὰρ δύναται•
because it is unable [to subject to the Law of God].
actionpurpose
οἱ δὲ ἐν σαρκὶ ὄντες θεῷ ἀρέσαι οὐ δύνανται.
Now , those who live continually in the flesh are unable to please God.
na28
discourse
D: 8:1–7
scripturetext
components
Romans 8:1-8
na28
text
ἄρα
γὰρ
subjectverb
νόμος
solid
drop
equal
revrocket
line
pred
ἠλευθέρωσέν
prepphrase
pstack
cword
τοῦ
πνεύματος
τῆς
ζωῆς
directobject
σε
ἀπὸ
τοῦ
νόμου
rocketship
τῆς
ἁμαρτίας
τοῦ
θανάτου
vertical
καὶ
ἐν
Χριστῷ
Ἰησοῦ
νῦν
predicate
κατάκριμα
Οὐδὲν
indirectobj
τοῖς
ἐν
Χριστῷ
Ἰησοῦ
γὰρ
[OR]
ἐν
ἠσθένει
διὰ
τῆς
σαρκός
θεὸς
Τὸ
ἀδύνατον
τοῦ
νόμου
ἐν
quoteshelf
ἠσθένει
διὰ
τῆς
σαρκός
participle
πέμψας
τὸν
υἱὸν
ἑαυτοῦ
ἐν
ὁμοιώματι
σαρκὸς
ἁμαρτίας
κατέκρινεν
τὴν
ἁμαρτίαν
περὶ
ἁμαρτίας
ἐν
τῇ
σαρκί
καὶ
τὸ
δικαίωμα
πληρωθῇ
τοῦ
νόμου
ἐν
ἡμῖν
equals
τοῖς
περιπατοῦσιν
κατὰ
σάρκα
μὴ
κατὰ
πνεῦμα
ἀλλὰ
ἵνα
vsnum
Romans 8:1
Romans 8:2
Romans 8:3
Romans 8:4
Romans 8:5
γὰρ
φρονοῦσιν
τὰ
σαρκὸς
shelf
οἱ
ὄντες
κατὰ
σάρκα
τὰ
τοῦ
πνεύματος
οἱ
κατὰ
πνεῦμα
δὲ
Romans 8:6
γὰρ
τὸ
φρόνημα
τῆς
σαρκὸς
θάνατος
τὸ
φρόνημα
τοῦ
πνεύματος
ζωὴ
εἰρήνη
καὶ
δὲ
διότι
Romans 8:7
τὸ
φρόνημα
τῆς
σαρκὸς
ἔχθρα
εἰς
θεόν
γὰρ
ὑποτάσσεται
οὐχ
τῷ
νόμῳ
τοῦ
θεοῦ
γὰρ
δύναται
οὐδὲ
dblaccusative
Romans 8:8
δὲ
δύνανται
οὐ
ἀρέσαι
θεῷ
οἱ
ὄντες
ἐν
σαρκὶ
Means (Wallace, 628)
Sphere? (Wallace, 372)
Fourth Attribute Position (Wallace, 310)
Re-evaulate this particle
Dative of Recipient (Wallace, 148)
Genitive of Production (Wallace, 104–06)
Genitive of Product (Wallace, 106–07)
Genitives of Product (Wallace, 106–07)
Means? (Wallace, 373–74)
Genitive of Production? Wallace, 104–06; i.e., "the impossibility [produced by] the Law"
Means (Wallace, 373–74)
Attributed Genitive (Wallace, 89) or Product (ibid., 106)?
Attributive Genitive (Wallace, 87)
Attributive Genitive (Wallace, 87)
Attributive Genitive (Wallace, 87)
Predicate Nominative
Predicate Nominative
Predicate Nominative
Attributive Genitive (Wallace, 87)
Attributive Genitive (Wallace, 87)
Likewise v. 6.
Possessive Genitive (Wallace, 81)
Direct Object
Direct Object
Complementary Infinitive
[Implied] Complementary Infinitive
Re-evaluate
diagram
notes
Notes
No Condemnation (v. 1) For what reason is there currently no condemnation released upon “those who are in Χριστῳ Ίησοῦ (v. 1)? [1] Verses 2–8 give the answer. More specifically, vv. 2–3 provide the ground and vv. 4–8 the purpose. The Ground (vv. 2–3) The reason that those “in Christ” receive no condemnation [2] is because a Law frees them from another law. That is, the Holy Spirit’s Law, which produces life in Christ , frees those “in Christ” from the law that produces sin and death (v. 2). [3] Paul, then takes one verse to explain the ground of such truth. The “for” ( γὰρ ), in this instance, signals the ground of v. 2. [4] Verse 3 as Ground for Verse 2 Verse 3 contains two primary parts. First, an action (3a). And second, the manner (3b–c) in which the action (3a) is carried out. First, the action (3a). There is no verb in the main clause, so evidentially Paul thought the reader should be able to gather his meaning. Most English translation supply some form of the verb “to do.” This seems most accurate, since the genitive τοῦ νόμου should be taken as a genitive of production. [5] Therefore, “God [did/accomplished/performed/achieved] the impossibility [ produced by ] the Law …” (3a) What was the impossibility ( ἀδύνατον ) of the Law? Answer: Sinners reaching the righteous standard of the Law through the Law . In other words, the Law commanded God’s people to do that which was completely unattainable. “But to this day Yahweh has not given you a heart to understand or eyes to see or ears to hear” (Deut 29:4). In other words, until God would grant hearts that understood the Law, eyes to see the Law and ears to hear the Law, no man could reach it. God sent the Law to people who lived in sinful flesh, and, instead of saving them, it destroyed them by causing them to sin even more. “Now the law came in to increase trespass, but where sin increased, grace abounded all the more …” (Rom 5:20). Now, what does the provocative relative clause ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός mean? To be sure, “weakened” cannot mean “inadequate,” “ineffective,” “lacking,” or other glosses as such, [6] for “ The law of the LORD is perfect, reviving the soul; the testimony of the LORD is sure, making wise the simple; the precepts of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart; the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes ” (Ps 19:7–8 ESV). The * ασθεν root has a wide semantic range in the NT, but for here it will do to say that I take ἠσθένει in v. 3 to mean something along the lines of “serving a purpose other than its original purpose.” Therefore, ἠσθένει refers to an alternative action that the Law performed because of διὰ τῆς σαρκός (i.e., man’s incapability to uphold the hold)—namely, condemnation. Psalm 19:7–8 and the whole of Psalm 119 attest to the life-giving, joy-producing, and blessing rendering qualities of the Mosaic Law. I argue that this is the original purpose of the Law (Lev 26:1–13 [esp. vv. 11–13]). That is, the Law was meant to bring blessing to God’s people and especially restore—though now mediated through sacrifice—God’s presence among his people (Lev 26:11–13). But the alternative purpose of the Law, because of τῆς σαρκός , is a condemning action. As cited above, Romans 5:20 declares that the Law increases the sins of people—that is, it shows them how sinful they are by the righteous standard of the Law which they cannot not reach on their own. Further, Romans 7:5 suggests that man’s sinful passions were produced (or aroused [ESV, NASB]) by the Law. [7] So, when Paul says that the Law was “weakened” through the flesh, he probably means that the Law is functioning in a way other than its original intention. Therefore, the Law has a twofold purpose: (1) To bring life, satisfaction, and God’s presence to all men; and (2) To condemn them in their flesh—that is, sinful nature. The latter is what I believe ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός means. It was through the flesh that the Law didn’t achieve its original purpose. [8] But God accomplished this impossibility. That is, he himself fulfilled the righteous requirement of the law for sinners through the Law. How so? (3b) Answer: By sending his own Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh , he accomplished the impossibility which the Law produced. It was sinful flesh that “weakened” the Law and it was through sinful flesh that God accomplished what the Law required of sinners. God sending Christ ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας does not mean that Christ was sinful. Rather, it should be taken to mean that Christ took the form like (hence, ὁμοιώματι) sinful flesh. Paul, in Philippians 2:6–8, clearly illustrates this point. Further, not only did God send Christ in the likeness (ὁμοιώματι) of sinful flesh, but he condemned sin “ in the flesh ,” which most likely refers to his flesh. περὶ ἁμαρτίας likely is an LXX phrase, which refers to a sin offering. Second Corinthians 5:21 explicitly illustrates this truth: “For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin , so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.” The Purpose (vv. 4–7) I take τοῦ νόμου to be a genitive of product (See dot note), which suggests that the Law produces righteousness. That is, if one has perfect adherence to the Law, that man would be deemed righteous. And this is precisely what the reality of v. 3b achieves for those in Christ (v. 1). The same people in v. 1 who receive “no condemnation” are “those who walk not by the flesh, but by the Spirit ” (v. 4). I take the γάρ in v. 5 to signal an explication of v. 4, [9] for the two types of people presented in v. 4 are presented in v. 5, which are further explained in vv. 6–7. (v. 5) Those in whom the righteousness of the Law is fulfilled—through the sin-condemning death of Christ (v. 3)—set their minds on the things of the Spirit, because they live ( ὄντες ) by the Spirit (v. 5b). On the contrary, those who live ( ὄντες ) by the flesh, set their minds upon things of the flesh (v. 5a). (v. 6) Like v. 5, I take the γάρ in v. 6 to signal an explication of v. 5. That is, v. 6 restates and further clarifies the realities of v. 5. It does so by providing more detailed descriptions of those who set their minds on the flesh and those who do not (v. 5; cf. v. 4). First, those who set their minds on the flesh ultimately will receive death (6a [attributive genitive: i.e., “the fleshly mind”]). Second, those who do not set their minds on the flesh ultimately will receive life and peace (v. 6b). Once again, the Spirit is portrayed as life-giving (v. 2). (v. 7) Finally, διότι signals a ground for vv. 5–6. Therefore, the reason that those who live by the flesh bend their minds to the flesh (which is death ) is because the mind that is bent to the flesh is hostile towards God (7a). That is, it is God’s enemy and there is fierce enmity between the two. The reason ( γάρ ) for this is because this mind does not subject (ὑποτάσσεται) itself to God’s Law (7b). And the reason ( γάρ ) for this is because it is incapable ( οὐδὲ … δύναται) of doing so. [1] Being found “ in Christ Jesus.” Which I take to mean being with Christ … [2] I take the οὐδὲν (neuter, singular, nominative) to modify κατάκριμα (neuter, singular, nominative) and not the implied copulative. The difference is between “There is not condemnation …” (modifies the copulative) and “There is no condemnation …” (modifies the noun). I believe the latter is more precise. [3] The first genitive construction τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς represents two kinds of genitives: possessive and product (See dot notes). τοῦ πνεύματος is a genitive of possession, meaning that the νόμος is possessed by τοῦ πνεύματος. The subsequent τῆς ζωῆς is a genitive of product, meaning τῆς ζωῆς is produced either by τοῦ πνεύματος or ὁ νόμος. It seems trivial to say that whether τῆς ζωῆς modifies “the Spirit” or “the Law” makes a significant difference. If “life” modifies “the Law,” the the Law produces life. But does that mean the Spirit does not produce life? It cannot mean that, because the Spirit owns the law! If “life” modifies “the Spirit,” then the Spirit produces life. But does that mean the Law does not? By no means! Since the Law sets free those in Christ (notice it is the subject of ἠλευθέρωσέν ), and the Spirit owns the Law (genitive of possession), then the Law of the Spirit must produce life. Perhaps Paul left this purposefully ambiguous. The two genitives ( τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου ) are genitives of product. [4] See BDAG, 189; See Morris, Romans , 301–02. [5] That is, the impossibility ( ἀδύνατον ) is produced by the τοῦ νόμου . [6] See John Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries , trans. John King (Edinburgh: Calvin Translation Society, 1847), on Romans 8:3 (Accordance doesn't give pp. numbers, only paragraph numbers—absurd!). [7] See BDAG, 225 for δία functioning instrumentally. [8] Calvin comments along these lines: "Paul has distinctly expressed that this defect was not owing to any fault in the law, but to the corruption of our flesh; for it must be allowed that if any one really satisfies the divine law, he will be deemed just before God. He does not then deny that the law is sufficient to justify us as to doctrine, inasmuch as it contains a perfect rule of righteousness: but as flesh does not attain that righteousness, the whole power of the law fails and vanishes away" (Calvin, Calvin's Commentaries , on Romans 8:3). [9] See BDAG, 189.
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