῏Ην δέ τις ἀσθενῶν,
Now a certain man was ill,
Λάζαρος ἀπὸ Βηθανίας,
Lazarus of Bethany,
Explanation and Idea
ἐκ τῆς κώμης Μαρίας καὶ Μάρθας τῆς ἀδελφῆς αὐτῆς.
the village of Mary and her sister Martha.
ἦν δὲ Μαριὰμ
It was Mary
ἡ ἀλείψασα τὸν κύριον
who anointed the Lord
καὶ ἐκμάξασα τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ
and wiped his feet
ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς,
with her hair,
ἧς ὁ ἀδελφὸς Λάζαρος ἠσθένει.
whose brother Lazarus was ill.
ἀπέστειλαν οὖν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν λέγουσαι•
So the sisters sent to him, saying,
κύριε, ἴδε ὃν φιλεῖς ἀσθενεῖ.
“Lord, he whom you love is ill.”
ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς
But when Jesus heard it
αὕτη ἡ ἀσθένεια οὐκ ἔστιν πρὸς θάνατον
“This illness does not lead to death.
Prophecy - anticipating future event
ἀλλʼ ὑπὲρ τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ,
It is for the glory of God,
Purpose -- that resulted in action in 11:6 below
ἵνα δοξασθῇ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ διʼ αὐτῆς.
so that the Son of God may be glorified through it.”
ἠγάπα δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν Μάρθαν καὶ τὴν ἀδελφὴν αὐτῆς καὶ τὸν Λάζαρον.
Now Jesus loved Martha and her sister and Lazarus.
ἤκουσεν ὅτι ἀσθενεῖ,
he heard that Lazarus was ill,
τότε μὲν ἔμεινεν ἐν ᾧ ἦν τόπῳ δύο ἡμέρας,
he stayed two days longer in the place where he was.
῏Ην δέ τις ἀσθενῶν, Λάζαρος ἀπὸ Βηθανίας, ἐκ τῆς κώμης Μαρίας καὶ Μάρθας τῆς ἀδελφῆς αὐτῆς.
ἦν δὲ Μαριὰμ ἡ ἀλείψασα τὸν κύριον μύρῳ καὶ ἐκμάξασα τοὺς πόδας αὐτοῦ ταῖς θριξὶν αὐτῆς, ἧς ὁ ἀδελφὸς Λάζαρος ἠσθένει.
ἀπέστειλαν οὖν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ πρὸς αὐτὸν λέγουσαι• κύριε, ἴδε ὃν φιλεῖς ἀσθενεῖ.
ἀκούσας δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν• αὕτη ἡ ἀσθένεια οὐκ ἔστιν πρὸς θάνατον ἀλλʼ ὑπὲρ τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ, ἵνα δοξασθῇ ὁ υἱὸς τοῦ θεοῦ διʼ αὐτῆς.
ἠγάπα δὲ ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὴν Μάρθαν καὶ τὴν ἀδελφὴν αὐτῆς καὶ τὸν Λάζαρον.
ὡς οὖν ἤκουσεν ὅτι ἀσθενεῖ, τότε μὲν ἔμεινεν ἐν ᾧ ἦν τόπῳ δύο ἡμέρας,
Characters: Jesus Lazarus Mary Martha Jesus (Blue Highlight) Observations Jesus was anointed by Mary in John 12:1-8, with oil and had his feet wiped with her hair (v.2) Jesus received a message from Mary and Martha (v.3) Jesus on hearing the message knew Lazarus would be raised to life (v.4) Jesus knew that the purpose of this is to glorify God, and also the Son of God, i.e. Himself (v.4) Jesus loved Martha, Mary and Lazarus (v.5) In order to love them and glorify God and Himself, He did a counter-intuitive thing, He stayed away for two more days and allowed Lazarus, Mary and Martha to go through a temporary grief (v.6) Thoughts/Questions For further discussion, please see questions below from Dr Piper Other thoughts are that Jesus could know what would happen in the future Jesus was also willing to face the confused accusations by Mary and Martha for His delay (v.17 - 37) Summary Jesus' highest good for the ones He loves is for us to know the glory of God and His glory. To love us then is to allow for a temporary pain and loss in order to know, treasure, experience a far greater joy. Lazarus (Red Highlight) Observations Lazarus was ill (v.1) He came from Bethany (v.1), same as Mary and Martha Brother to Mary and Martha (v.2) Loved by Jesus (v.3,5) Was predicted to rise from the dead (v.4) His death and rising would glory God and Jesus (v.4) Thoughts/Questions Lazarus experienced the pain and loss of his health and his life. The text does not say, but it is likely that he did not know the reason for his suffering. This is an example to me of suffering when we don't understa nd. To go through something horrific, and yet know that somehow, beyond us, God is working His purpose out. Yet while on earth, after this incident, Lazarus also faces other troubles, some Jews wanted to kill Lazarus (John 12:9ff) for the glory given to Jesus by his being raised from the dead, was too strong an evidence that Jesus was to be believed and followed (12:11). Summary Lazarus is loved by Jesus, and is allowed to go through sickness and death, and life again and then death again. But he is loved, and given the highest good Jesus could give him. Mary (Green Highlight) Observations Sister of Martha and Lazarus (v.1-3) Loved by Jesus (v.5) From Bethany (v.1) The one who would anoint Jesus with ointment, and wipe his feet in John 12:1-8. Sent a message to Jesus for help for Lazarus (v.3) Thoughts/Questions I wonder if it is significant that this Mary is the only one recorded in the four gospels who was said to know, accept and honour the death of Jesus before Jesus was crucified. Not even the disciples seem to realise what was going to happen. I wonder to what degree Mary knew this from the death and rising of her brother Lazarus, and all the times she spent at Jesus' feet. I wonder if Mary and Martha were unmarried, for it seems to me that when the women are married or widowed in the bible, they are named by relation e.g. so and so, mother of so and so, or so and so, wife of such and such. Summary Mary, who is loved by Jesus and who loved Jesus greatly and really understood Jesus, went through pain and loss, the sorrow of losing her brother. All this so that she may later receive a fuller understanding, appreciation for, and relishing in the greater glory to be shown, a greater joy to be had. Martha (OrangeHighlight) Observations Sister to mary and Lazarus (v.1) From Bethany (v.1) Sent a message to Jesus for help for Lazarus (v.3) Loved by Jesus (v.5) Thoughts/Questions See the second thought regarding Mary above. It seems like in John 11:28, Martha had to bear the pain of seeing her sister, Mary be in grief and loss. Martha tells Mary that Jesus has arrived, she must have known how much Mary needed Jesus at that point. This is the same Martha recorded in Luke 10:38 - 41, who wanted Jesus to tell Mary to help her with the chores. Summary Martha was loved by Jesus but yet had to undergo the pain and sorrow of losing her brother to an illness. Martha also had to bear the sorrow of her sister. Yet Martha, even this Martha who Luke describes as anxious and troubled about many things, would be shown the great love of Jesus, and would see and know and enjoy the glory that was to be revealed through her brother's death and rising. Dr Piper's Questions 1. W hen you sit down to read a passage of Scripture, how do you approach determining the author’s intended meaning? How would you help someone else read the Bible that way? a. We first have to read it b. In reading, we are to see, observe what words, punctuation, indicators an author has given. c. "We see how the author chose and arranged his words" and d. seeing why he chose them and arranged them the way he did e. then determine the genre - story, poem, epistle, proverb f. Consider the sets of principles that guide us to reading the different genre g. Consider if there is a new genre or a mixed genre, so go back to b) Therefore, "no interpretation issue is settled decisively by identifying a genre." "But by the author's choices and indicators" 2. H ow many genres (types of literature) can you think of in the Bible? What are different ways the biblical authors communicate their meaning (e.g. poetry)? * Exposition - usually based on logical abstract arguments, filled with imperatives to be followed * Narrative - a story that does not necessarily have imperatives or actions to be obeyed * Poetry - using at times metaphorical language, that are not to be taken literally * Wisdom - general observations about life that are not necessarily promises or things to be recommended * Gospel - a narrative about the person of Jesus Christ * Epistle - a letter that was originally written to one specific type of audience * Historical - A narrative that tells of what happened in the past * Apocalyptic - e.g. Revelation: visions of some future event that are often difficult to precisely pin down what would happen 3. H ow might the genre of a biblical passage affect its meaning? When you realize what genre an author is writing in, how does that affect your understanding or applying of the passage? a) A genre may be helpful in determining what and how the author intended for us to understand his meaning b) However, a genre is not definitive in interpretation, because a genre is based on a preconceived understanding of how a piece of writing is to be understood. The author may not have had this genre's principles of interpretation in mind, but may have had his own sense of how he would use the genre, mix genres, or perhaps even create his own genre. Therefore, the internal evidence of the writing must be priority, before genre in determining how to understand a piece of writing. 4. R ead John 11:1–6 . List everything you learn about the relationships and history between Jesus, Lazarus, Mary, and Martha. Lazarus, Mary and Martha are significant people for Jesus Mary had anointed Jesus' with oil and wiped His feet with her hair Mary has great affection for Jesus Lazarus and Martha are siblings of Mary Jesus loved Lazarus, Martha and Mary This family is special to Jesus 5. H ow would you expect Jesus to respond to their plea? How does he respond? I would have expected Jesus to rush over and heal Lazarus. But Jesus does not, he waits two more days. 6. E xplain the “So” or “Therefore” at the beginning of John 11:6 . How does what comes after the “So” follow from what came before? Jesus loved Mary, Martha and Lazarus This is why Jesus waited. The "so", is as a result of. Which means that because Jesus loved them, He waited and let Lazarus die. 7. E xplain the “So” at the beginning of John 11:6 (again, if you have worked through the questions on the previous lab). How does what comes before the “So” explain what comes after? And how does what Jesus says in John 11:4 inform your explanation? Jesus loved Martha, Mary and Lazarus Therefore. . . He let Lazarus die Jesus allows for a lot of pain to come to the three of them How can this be a loving thing? John 11:4 The glory of God, and the glory of the Son of God - Jesus will allow Lazarus to die so that this glory can happen in this situation In John 11:30 - the glory occurs. Love allows for God's glory to be seen, displayed in the lives which are loved John Piper: "God's love often allows pain and loss in the lives of the beloved" " God's love means doing what we must to help the beloved see and savor the glory of God forever" 8. R ead Jesus’s prayer in John 17 . How does his prayer, especially verses 1–5 and 24 affect your understand of love (his love for us, and our love for others)? This high priestly prayer is about love for Jesus' people Jesus first prays for His glory v.24 Jesus desires for all those that belong to Him and are loved by Him, would see His glory. Jesus wants the highest good, the greatest joy. "Love labours and suffers to enthrall the beloved with what is infinitely and eternally satisfying, namly, God. The Glory of God." 9. I t says Jesus loved Lazarus, Mary, and Martha. What does John 11:1–6 teach us about love? "Love is always, at its peak and fullest, God-centered" "Love is giving people God." Preaching to myself Oh my soul, how wrong you are to think that when God loves you, you will not experience pain or loss. The same with those you love in this world. Do not, my soul, do not think that while you experience pain and loss, that God does not love you. Take heart from this story of Jesus and Lazarus and Martha and Mary. How Jesus loved them, how Jesus loves you. Do not be trapped within one moment of painful loss, thinking and concluding within that one moment of time, what God's love for you is and isn't. Learn from this story that there is a general principle to be embraced - that Jesus wants you to know the love that risks pain and loss, and your misunderstanding and even confused accusations. All this in order that the glory of God and of your Christ will be known. And then my soul, oh my soul, you shall know such joy, such comfort, such strength, such truth, such glory, such love as you have never dared to believe you could have. Wait upon the LORD, oh my soul, take hope in Him. Delight in Him And He shall satisfy you and glorify Himself. Know that some if not all of your sorrows can be for His glory. Also know the same for the sorrows, pain and loss of those around you. Be patient, have delayed gratification until the Day of that ultimate Glory, and the ultimate Joy the coming of your LORD and everyone else's LORD of your God, and the God of this whole world. Do not fret Do not be disheartened Do not pre-judge God Believe the words of Jesus more than your pain. Oh my soul. Takeaway I am to be comforted that when God, our of His great love, allows pain and loss in my life, it is for something far greater, most often for His glory and my joy Equally, if I love those around me, I am also to allow them at time to experience pain and loss for this greater thing from God. I do not love them when I want to make them feel better, not necessarily. I have not loved well in this way.