Main point summary
The gospel of Jesus Christ was promised beforehand through the prophets in the holy Scriptures and has been fulfilled for the sake of all those who are called by him. Therefore, let them not be ashamed of the gospel, but let them encourage one another with it and proclaim it to the perishing who have been given over to a worthless mind.
a slave of Christ Jesus,
δοῦλος Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ,
set apart unto the gospel of God,
ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ,
which he promised beforehand through his prophets in the holy Scriptures
ὃ προεπηγγείλατο διὰ τῶν προφητῶν αὐτοῦ ἐν γραφαῖς ἁγίαις
concerning his son,
περὶ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ
the one who came from the seed of David according to the flesh,
τοῦ γενομένου ἐκ σπέρματος Δαυὶδ κατὰ σάρκα,
the one who was declared the Son of God in power according to the Spirit of holiness from the resurrection of the dead,
τοῦ ὁρισθέντος υἱοῦ θεοῦ ἐν δυνάμει κατὰ πνεῦμα ἁγιωσύνης ἐξ ἀναστάσεως νεκρῶν,
Jesus Christ, the Lord of us,
Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν,
through whom we received grace and apostleship
διʼ οὗ ἐλάβομεν χάριν καὶ ἀποστολὴν
unto the obedience of faith
εἰς ὑπακοὴν πίστεως
in all the nations
ἐν πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν
for the sake of his name
ὑπὲρ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὐτοῦ,
among whom you also are called of Jesus Christ,
ἐν οἷς ἐστε καὶ ὑμεῖς κλητοὶ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,
to all the ones who are in Rome,
πᾶσιν τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Ῥώμῃ
beloved of God,
grace to you all and peace from God our father and the Lord Jesus Christ.
χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
First [μεν] I am giving thanks to my God through Jesus Christ, concerning all of you, that your faith is being proclaimed in the whole world,
Πρῶτον μὲν εὐχαριστῶ τῷ θεῷ μου διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ περὶ πάντων ὑμῶν ὅτι ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν καταγγέλλεται ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ κόσμῳ.
for God is my witness, whom I serve in my spirit in the gospel of his son,
μάρτυς γάρ μού ἐστιν ὁ θεός, ᾧ λατρεύω ἐν τῷ πνεύματί μου ἐν τῷ εὐαγγελίῳ τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ,
as I make memory of you all without ceasing,
ὡς ἀδιαλείπτως μνείαν ὑμῶν ποιοῦμαι
always praying in the course of my prayers,
πάντοτε ἐπὶ τῶν προσευχῶν μου δεόμενος
if somehow I may now at this time succeed by the will of God in coming to you,
εἴ πως ἤδη ποτὲ εὐοδωθήσομαι ἐν τῷ θελήματι τοῦ θεοῦ ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς.
for I am strongly desiring to see you all
ἐπιποθῶ γὰρ ἰδεῖν ὑμᾶς,
in order that I might impart to you all some spiritual gift
ἵνα τι μεταδῶ χάρισμα ὑμῖν πνευματικὸν
in order that you all might be strengthened.
εἰς τὸ στηριχθῆναι ὑμᾶς,
Now, this means to be encouraged together among you all through the faith in one another, [the faith] of you all and also of me.
τοῦτο δέ ἐστιν συμπαρακληθῆναι ἐν ὑμῖν διὰ τῆς ἐν ἀλλήλοις πίστεως ὑμῶν τε καὶ ἐμοῦ.
Now, I am not wanting you all to be ignorant, brothers and sisters,
οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί,
that I frequently made plans to come to you all,
ὅτι πολλάκις προεθέμην ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς,
but I have been prohibited up til now,
καὶ ἐκωλύθην ἄχρι τοῦ δεῦρο,
in order that I might have some fruit also among you,
ἵνα τινὰ καρπὸν σχῶ καὶ ἐν ὑμῖν
just as also among the other nations.
καθὼς καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς ἔθνεσιν.
To Greeks and also to Barbarians, to the wise and also to the foolish I am obligated,
Ἕλλησίν τε καὶ βαρβάροις, σοφοῖς τε καὶ ἀνοήτοις ὀφειλέτης εἰμί,
in this way [is] my willingness to proclaim the good news also to you all who are in Rome,
οὕτως τὸ κατʼ ἐμὲ πρόθυμον καὶ ὑμῖν τοῖς ἐν Ῥώμῃ εὐαγγελίσασθαι.
for I am not ashamed of the good news,
Οὐ γὰρ ἐπαισχύνομαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον,
for the power of God is unto salvation to all who believe,
δύναμις γὰρ θεοῦ ἐστιν εἰς σωτηρίαν παντὶ τῷ πιστεύοντι,
to the Jew first and also to the Greek,
Ἰουδαίῳ τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνι.
for the righteousness of God is being revealed in it from faith unto faith,
δικαιοσύνη γὰρ θεοῦ ἐν αὐτῷ ἀποκαλύπτεται ἐκ πίστεως εἰς πίστιν,
just as it has been written, "Now, the righteous will live from faith,"
καθὼς γέγραπται• ὁ δὲ δίκαιος ἐκ πίστεως ζήσεται.
for the wrath of God is being revealed from heaven upon all ungodliness and unrighteousness of the ones who by unrighteousness stifle the truth,
Ἀποκαλύπτεται γὰρ ὀργὴ θεοῦ ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ἀσέβειαν καὶ ἀδικίαν ἀνθρώπων τῶν τὴν ἀλήθειαν ἐν ἀδικίᾳ κατεχόντων,
because what is able to be known of God is revealed in them,
διότι τὸ γνωστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ φανερόν ἐστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς•
for God revealed [to, through, by means of] them,
ὁ θεὸς γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἐφανέρωσεν.
for the unseen things of him being apprehended from the creation of the world by means of the created things
τὰ γὰρ ἀόρατα αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ κτίσεως κόσμου τοῖς ποιήμασιν νοούμενα
likewise his eternal power and divinity are perceived
καθορᾶται, ἥ τε ἀΐδιος αὐτοῦ δύναμις καὶ θειότης,
in order that they are without excuse,
εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτοὺς ἀναπολογήτους,
because although knowing God,
διότι γνόντες τὸν θεὸν
they did not glorify [him] as God
οὐχ ὡς θεὸν ἐδόξασαν
or give thanks,
instead they were given over to futility in their thoughts
ἀλλʼ ἐματαιώθησαν ἐν τοῖς διαλογισμοῖς αὐτῶν
and the foolish heart of them was darkened.
καὶ ἐσκοτίσθη ἡ ἀσύνετος αὐτῶν καρδία.
Claiming to be wise,
φάσκοντες εἶναι σοφοὶ
they were made foolish,
and they changed the glory of the immortal God into the likeness of the image of mortal man and birds and animals and creeping things,
καὶ ἤλλαξαν τὴν δόξαν τοῦ ἀφθάρτου θεοῦ ἐν ὁμοιώματι εἰκόνος φθαρτοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πετεινῶν καὶ τετραπόδων καὶ ἑρπετῶν.
Therefore, God delivered them over by the lusts of their hearts to immorality
Διὸ παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς ἐν ταῖς ἐπιθυμίαις τῶν καρδιῶν αὐτῶν εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν
in order to dishonor their bodies by them,
τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τὰ σώματα αὐτῶν ἐν αὐτοῖς•
who exchanged the truth of God by means of a lie
οἵτινες μετήλλαξαν τὴν ἀλήθειαν τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν τῷ ψεύδει
and worshiped and served the creature,
καὶ ἐσεβάσθησαν καὶ ἐλάτρευσαν τῇ κτίσει
putting aside the Creator, who is blessed unto the ages, amen.
παρὰ τὸν κτίσαντα, ὅς ἐστιν εὐλογητὸς εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας, ἀμήν.
Because of this, God delivered them over unto passions of dishonor,
Διὰ τοῦτο παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς πάθη ἀτιμίας,
for their females likewise exchanged natural relations into/for what is contrary to nature,
αἵ τε γὰρ θήλειαι αὐτῶν μετήλλαξαν τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν εἰς τὴν παρὰ φύσιν,
and likewise the men also,
ὁμοίως τε καὶ οἱ ἄρσενες
departing from natural relations of females,
ἀφέντες τὴν φυσικὴν χρῆσιν τῆς θηλείας
instigated destruction by means of their desires unto one another,
ἐξεκαύθησαν ἐν τῇ ὀρέξει αὐτῶν εἰς ἀλλήλους,
bringing about a state of shamefulness,
ἄρσενες ἐν ἄρσεσιν τὴν ἀσχημοσύνην κατεργαζόμενοι
and the recompense which was due their error receiving by means of themselves,
καὶ τὴν ἀντιμισθίαν ἣν ἔδει τῆς πλάνης αὐτῶν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς ἀπολαμβάνοντες.
and just as they did not prove the worth of God by means of knowledge,
Καὶ καθὼς οὐκ ἐδοκίμασαν τὸν θεὸν ἔχειν ἐν ἐπιγνώσει,
God delivered them over unto a worthless mind
παρέδωκεν αὐτοὺς ὁ θεὸς εἰς ἀδόκιμον νοῦν,
to do things that are not proper,
ποιεῖν τὰ μὴ καθήκοντα,
having been filled with all unrighteousness, baseness of morality, greed, wickedness; characterized by envy, murder, contention, deceit, malice; gossips slanderers, haters of God, insolent, proud, boastful, contrivers of evil, disobedient to parents, void of understanding, faithless, hardhearted, unmerciful,
πεπληρωμένους πάσῃ ἀδικίᾳ πονηρίᾳ πλεονεξίᾳ κακίᾳ, μεστοὺς φθόνου φόνου ἔριδος δόλου κακοηθείας, ψιθυριστὰς καταλάλους θεοστυγεῖς ὑβριστὰς ὑπερηφάνους ἀλαζόνας, ἐφευρετὰς κακῶν, γονεῦσιν ἀπειθεῖς, ἀσυνέτους ἀσυνθέτους ἀστόργους ἀνελεήμονας•
who, [although] knowing the righteous requirement of God,
οἵτινες τὸ δικαίωμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐπιγνόντες
that the one doing such things is worthy of death,
ὅτι οἱ τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντες ἄξιοι θανάτου εἰσίν,
not only are doing them
οὐ μόνον αὐτὰ ποιοῦσιν
but also are approving of those doing [them].
ἀλλὰ καὶ συνευδοκοῦσιν τοῖς πράσσουσιν.
Therefore, you are without excuse, O man, everyone who is condemning,
Διὸ ἀναπολόγητος εἶ, ὦ ἄνθρωπε πᾶς ὁ κρίνων•
for by means of that which you are condemning another, you are condemning yourself,
ἐν ᾧ γὰρ κρίνεις τὸν ἕτερον, σεαυτὸν κατακρίνεις,
for you who condemn are doing the same things.
τὰ γὰρ αὐτὰ πράσσεις ὁ κρίνων.
Direct object ? Dative of means?
What kind of participle? Seems to set up a comparison.
Their sinful desires are the means by which God delivered them over to uncleanness.
purpose or result infinitive?
neut, dat, pl - antecedent σωματα their bodies are the means by which their bodies are dishonored?
This "purpose" is based on the repetition of "παρεδωκεν αυτους ο Θεος (vv. 26a, 28b)" in this situation described as having been caused by the "παρεδωκεν αυτους ο Θεος" in v. 24a because God's agency usually intends things to happen.
Terminative use of αχρι, no change in circumstance signaled, cf. Rom 11:25