Main point summary
Affliction and distress will come upon all the wicked, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. But glory and honor and peace will be to all who do good, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. Therefore, the true Jews are Jews inwardly, and the truly circumcised are those whose hearts and spirits have been circumcised.
Now we know that the judgment of God is according to truth upon those who are doing such things.
οἴδαμεν δὲ ὅτι τὸ κρίμα τοῦ θεοῦ ἐστιν κατὰ ἀλήθειαν ἐπὶ τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντας.
Now, are you considering this,
λογίζῃ δὲ τοῦτο,
O man, you who are condemning those who are doing such things
ὦ ἄνθρωπε ὁ κρίνων τοὺς τὰ τοιαῦτα πράσσοντας
and are doing them,
καὶ ποιῶν αὐτά,
that you will escape the judgment of God?
ὅτι σὺ ἐκφεύξῃ τὸ κρίμα τοῦ θεοῦ;
Or do you despise the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience,
ἢ τοῦ πλούτου τῆς χρηστότητος αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς ἀνοχῆς καὶ τῆς μακροθυμίας καταφρονεῖς,
not recognizing that the kindness of God is leading you unto repentance?
ἀγνοῶν ὅτι τὸ χρηστὸν τοῦ θεοῦ εἰς μετάνοιάν σε ἄγει;
Now, according to your stubbornness and unrepentant heart,
κατὰ δὲ τὴν σκληρότητά σου καὶ ἀμετανόητον καρδίαν
you are storing up for yourself wrath in/on the day of wrath and of the revelation of the just judgment of God,
θησαυρίζεις σεαυτῷ ὀργὴν ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὀργῆς καὶ ἀποκαλύψεως δικαιοκρισίας τοῦ θεοῦ
who will render to each one according to his works,
ὃς ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα αὐτοῦ•
on the one hand, to those who, according to perseverance of good work,
τοῖς μὲν καθʼ ὑπομονὴν ἔργου ἀγαθοῦ
are seeking glory and honor, and immortality:
δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ ἀφθαρσίαν ζητοῦσιν
on the other hand, to those who from selfish ambition
τοῖς δὲ ἐξ ἐριθείας
also are disbelieving the truth
καὶ ἀπειθοῦσιν τῇ ἀληθείᾳ
and then obeying unrighteousness:
πειθομένοις δὲ τῇ ἀδικίᾳ
wrath and indignation.
ὀργὴ καὶ θυμός.
Affliction and distress upon every soul of man whose actions accomplish evil,
θλῖψις καὶ στενοχωρία ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ψυχὴν ἀνθρώπου τοῦ κατεργαζομένου τὸ κακόν,
of the Jew first and likewise also of the Greek,
Ἰουδαίου τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνος•
and (δε) glory and honor and peace to everyone who does good,
δόξα δὲ καὶ τιμὴ καὶ εἰρήνη παντὶ τῷ ἐργαζομένῳ τὸ ἀγαθόν,
to the Jew first and likewise also to the Greek,
Ἰουδαίῳ τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνι•
for there is not partiality with God,
οὐ γάρ ἐστιν προσωπολημψία παρὰ τῷ θεῷ.
for all who sin lawlessly
Ὅσοι γὰρ ἀνόμως ἥμαρτον,
will also perish lawlessly,
ἀνόμως καὶ ἀπολοῦνται,
and all who sin by the law
καὶ ὅσοι ἐν νόμῳ ἥμαρτον,
will be condemned through the law,
διὰ νόμου κριθήσονται•
for the hearers of the law are not righteous with God,
οὐ γὰρ οἱ ἀκροαταὶ νόμου δίκαιοι παρὰ [τῷ] θεῷ,
but the doers of the law will be pronounced righteous,
ἀλλʼ οἱ ποιηταὶ νόμου δικαιωθήσονται.
for whenever the nations not having the law by nature should be doing the things of the law,
ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν,
these not having the law are the law with respect to themselves,
οὗτοι νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες ἑαυτοῖς εἰσιν νόμος•
whoever is demonstrating the work of the law to be written on their heart,
οἵτινες ἐνδείκνυνται τὸ ἔργον τοῦ νόμου γραπτὸν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν,
[although] their conscience is bearing witness
συμμαρτυρούσης αὐτῶν τῆς συνειδήσεως
and [although] between one another the[ir] thoughts are bringing charges against [them] or even speaking in defense [of them]
καὶ μεταξὺ ἀλλήλων τῶν λογισμῶν κατηγορούντων ἢ καὶ ἀπολογουμένων,
in the day when God is judging the hidden things of men according to my gospel through Christ Jesus.
ἐν ἡμέρᾳ ὅτε κρίνει ὁ θεὸς τὰ κρυπτὰ τῶν ἀνθρώπων κατὰ τὸ εὐαγγέλιόν μου διὰ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ.
Now if you are being called a Jew,
Εἰ δὲ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ἐπονομάζῃ
and you are resting in the law,
καὶ ἐπαναπαύῃ νόμῳ
and you are boasting in God,
καὶ καυχᾶσαι ἐν θεῷ
and you are knowing the will,
καὶ γινώσκεις τὸ θέλημα
and you are approving the better things,
καὶ δοκιμάζεις τὰ διαφέροντα
[then] having been instructed from the law,
κατηχούμενος ἐκ τοῦ νόμου,
you have likewise believed yourself to be a guide of the blind, a light of the ones in darkness, an instructor of fools, a teacher of children,
πέποιθάς τε σεαυτὸν ὁδηγὸν εἶναι τυφλῶν, φῶς τῶν ἐν σκότει, παιδευτὴν ἀφρόνων, διδάσκαλον νηπίων,
having the embodiment of knowledge and truth in the law.
ἔχοντα τὴν μόρφωσιν τῆς γνώσεως καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἐν τῷ νόμῳ•
Now then, you who teach others, yourself you are not teaching.
ὁ οὖν διδάσκων ἕτερον σεαυτὸν οὐ διδάσκεις;
You who are preaching not to steal are stealing.
ὁ κηρύσσων μὴ κλέπτειν κλέπτεις;
You who are saying not to commit adultery are committing adultery.
ὁ λέγων μὴ μοιχεύειν μοιχεύεις;
You who are abhorring idols are robbing temples.
ὁ βδελυσσόμενος τὰ εἴδωλα ἱεροσυλεῖς;
You who are boasting in the law, through the transgression of the law, you are dishonoring God,
ὃς ἐν νόμῳ καυχᾶσαι, διὰ τῆς παραβάσεως τοῦ νόμου τὸν θεὸν ἀτιμάζεις•
for "the name of God is blasphemed among the nations because of you ," just as it has been written.
τὸ γὰρ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ διʼ ὑμᾶς βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, καθὼς γέγραπται.
For, on the one hand, circumcision benefits
Περιτομὴ μὲν γὰρ ὠφελεῖ
if the law should be accomplished,
ἐὰν νόμον πράσσῃς•
but (δε) if you should be a transgressor of the law,
ἐὰν δὲ παραβάτης νόμου ᾖς,
your circumcision has become uncircumcision.
ἡ περιτομή σου ἀκροβυστία γέγονεν.
Therefore, if the uncircumcised should keep the righteous requirements of the law,
ἐὰν οὖν ἡ ἀκροβυστία τὰ δικαιώματα τοῦ νόμου φυλάσσῃ,
will not then his uncircumcision be counted unto circumcision?
οὐχ ἡ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῦ εἰς περιτομὴν λογισθήσεται;
And the from-nature-uncircumcised one who fulfills the law will judge you, the through-letter-and-circumcision transgressor of the law,
καὶ κρινεῖ ἡ ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία τὸν νόμον τελοῦσα σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου.
for the Jewishness is not in the visible place,
οὐ γὰρ ὁ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Ἰουδαῖός ἐστιν
neither is the circumcision in the visible place, that is, in the flesh,
οὐδὲ ἡ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ ἐν σαρκὶ περιτομή,
instead, the Jewishness is in the hidden place,
ἀλλʼ ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖος,
and circumcision of the heart, in the spirit,
καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ἐν πνεύματι
not of the letter,
where the praise is not from man
οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων
but from God.
ἀλλʼ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ.
This is an inferential progression of the argument. vv. 17-20 set up the shocking reveal in vv. 21-25.
Forward-pointing to the οτι clause in 3b to highlight its importance
Seems to point both back to εθνη and forward to οιτινες
This person's conscience would have been defending them, but would not prove to have the work of the law written on their heart (15a)
A progression insofar as it expands, intensifies, and explains. Every soul of man...of the Jew first and also of the Greek ... for the hearers of the law are not righteous with God, but the doers...
vv. 15-16 The condition of having the work of the law (interesting singular) written on the heart is what matters in the day of God's judgment, not whether the conscience accuses or defends