Main point summary
Because all people died, it is evident that all people have sinned. However, just as death ubiquitously reigned over all those who sinned on the face of the earth, so will Christ reign over all those who make peace with God and are forgiven through faith in him. Far greater and longer lasting will be the life-giving effects of the free gift of God's grace in Christ than the death-bringing effects of Adam's sin.
Being made righteous, therefore, on the basis of faith,
Δικαιωθέντες οὖν ἐκ πίστεως
we have peace with God through our Lord, Jesus Christ,
εἰρήνην ἔχομεν πρὸς τὸν θεὸν διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ
through whom also access we have obtained, by means of faith, into this grace in which we have stood,
διʼ οὗ καὶ τὴν προσαγωγὴν ἐσχήκαμεν [τῇ πίστει] εἰς τὴν χάριν ταύτην ἐν ᾗ ἑστήκαμεν
and we are boasting because of the hope of the glory of God.
καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ.
Now, not only [are we boasting in the hope],
οὐ μόνον δέ,
but also we are boasting in the afflictions,
ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμεθα ἐν ταῖς θλίψεσιν,
knowing that the affliction produces patient endurance.
εἰδότες ὅτι ἡ θλῖψις ὑπομονὴν κατεργάζεται,
Now, patient endurance [produces] proof of genuineness.
ἡ δὲ ὑπομονὴ δοκιμήν,
Now, proof of genuineness [produces] hope.
ἡ δὲ δοκιμὴ ἐλπίδα.
Now, hope is not putting to shame
ἡ δὲ ἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει,
because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit, who has been given to us,
ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν.
for Christ, while we were still weak, nevertheless, according to the appointed time, on behalf of the ungodly, died,
Ἔτι γὰρ Χριστὸς ὄντων ἡμῶν ἀσθενῶν ἔτι κατὰ καιρὸν ὑπὲρ ἀσεβῶν ἀπέθανεν.
for, hardly will someone die on behalf of a righteous person,
μόλις γὰρ ὑπὲρ δικαίου τις ἀποθανεῖται•
for, on behalf of a good person possibly someone also may bring themselves to die.
ὑπὲρ γὰρ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ τάχα τις καὶ τολμᾷ ἀποθανεῖν•
Now, God is demonstrating his own love unto us,
συνίστησιν δὲ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ ἀγάπην εἰς ἡμᾶς ὁ θεός,
that while we were still sinners,
ὅτι ἔτι ἁμαρτωλῶν ὄντων ἡμῶν
Christ died on our behalf.
Χριστὸς ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἀπέθανεν.
Therefore, much more, being now made righteous in his blood,
πολλῷ οὖν μᾶλλον δικαιωθέντες νῦν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ
we will be saved through him from the wrath,
σωθησόμεθα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀργῆς.
for if, being enemies,
εἰ γὰρ ἐχθροὶ ὄντες
we were reconciled to God through the death of his Son,
κατηλλάγημεν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ θανάτου τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ,
much more, being reconciled,
πολλῷ μᾶλλον καταλλαγέντες
we will be saved in his life.
σωθησόμεθα ἐν τῇ ζωῇ αὐτοῦ•
Now, not only [being reconciled],
οὐ μόνον δέ,
but also boasting in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom now we received reconciliation.
ἀλλὰ καὶ καυχώμενοι ἐν τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ διʼ οὗ νῦν τὴν καταλλαγὴν ἐλάβομεν.
On account of this, just as through one person sin entered into the world,
Διὰ τοῦτο ὥσπερ διʼ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἡ ἁμαρτία εἰς τὸν κόσμον εἰσῆλθεν
and through sin death [entered],
καὶ διὰ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ θάνατος,
and in this way death spread into all people,
καὶ οὕτως εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους ὁ θάνατος διῆλθεν,
on the basis of which, all sinned,
ἐφʼ ᾧ πάντες ἥμαρτον•
for until the law, sin was in the world.
ἄχρι γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία ἦν ἐν κόσμῳ,
Now, sin is not being recorded since there is not a law,
ἁμαρτία δὲ οὐκ ἐλλογεῖται μὴ ὄντος νόμου,
but death reigned from Adam until Moses, also upon those who did not sin in the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of the one who is coming.
ἀλλʼ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωϋσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδὰμ ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος.
But [it is] not, "As the sin, so also is the gift,"
Ἀλλʼ οὐχ ὡς τὸ παράπτωμα, οὕτως καὶ τὸ χάρισμα•
for if by the one sin the many died,
εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι οἱ πολλοὶ ἀπέθανον,
much more the grace of God and the free gift in grace by the one man, Jesus Christ, abounded unto the many.
πολλῷ μᾶλλον ἡ χάρις τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ ἡ δωρεὰ ἐν χάριτι τῇ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ εἰς τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐπερίσσευσεν.
And [it is] not, "As through the one who sinned [so also comes] the gift,
καὶ οὐχ ὡς διʼ ἑνὸς ἁμαρτήσαντος τὸ δώρημα•
for, on the one hand, judgment proceeding from one [is] unto condemnation,
τὸ μὲν γὰρ κρίμα ἐξ ἑνὸς εἰς κατάκριμα,
but the free gift proceeding from many sins [is] unto righteousness,
τὸ δὲ χάρισμα ἐκ πολλῶν παραπτωμάτων εἰς δικαίωμα.
for if by the sin of the one, death reigned through the one,
εἰ γὰρ τῷ τοῦ ἑνὸς παραπτώματι ὁ θάνατος ἐβασίλευσεν διὰ τοῦ ἑνός,
much more those who receive the abundance of grace and of the gift of righteousness in life will reign through the one, Jesus Christ.
πολλῷ μᾶλλον οἱ τὴν περισσείαν τῆς χάριτος καὶ τῆς δωρεᾶς τῆς δικαιοσύνης λαμβάνοντες ἐν ζωῇ βασιλεύσουσιν διὰ τοῦ ἑνὸς Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.
So then, as through one sin [is] unto all people unto condemnation,
Ἄρα οὖν ὡς διʼ ἑνὸς παραπτώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς κατάκριμα,
in this way also through the one righteousness [is] unto all people unto the righteousness of life,
οὕτως καὶ διʼ ἑνὸς δικαιώματος εἰς πάντας ἀνθρώπους εἰς δικαίωσιν ζωῆς•
for just as through the disobedience of one man, the many were made sinners,
ὥσπερ γὰρ διὰ τῆς παρακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ἁμαρτωλοὶ κατεστάθησαν οἱ πολλοί,
in the same way also through the obedience of the one the many will be made righteous ones.
οὕτως καὶ διὰ τῆς ὑπακοῆς τοῦ ἑνὸς δίκαιοι κατασταθήσονται οἱ πολλοί.
Now, the law has slipped in,
νόμος δὲ παρεισῆλθεν,
in order that sin might be multiplied.
ἵνα πλεονάσῃ τὸ παράπτωμα•
Now where sin multiplied, grace was more abundant
οὗ δὲ ἐπλεόνασεν ἡ ἁμαρτία, ὑπερεπερίσσευσεν ἡ χάρις,
in order that just as sin reigned in death,
ἵνα ὥσπερ ἐβασίλευσεν ἡ ἁμαρτία ἐν τῷ θανάτῳ,
in the same way also grace might reign through righteousness unto eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.
οὕτως καὶ ἡ χάρις βασιλεύσῃ διὰ δικαιοσύνης εἰς ζωὴν αἰώνιον διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν.
Louw & Nida, 266. " (an idiom, literally ‘the blood pours out’) to die, with the implication of a sacrificial purpose — ‘to die as a sacrifice, sacrificial death.’"
The gift, the Giver, and its results are different than the sin, the sinner, and its results.
Clause-final verb to signal emphasis. The affliction produces the endurance, and so on. This is why we boast in affliction (cf. 2 Cor 4:16-18)
Clause-final verb, coupled with the placement of the negative particle, signals emphasis. Rom 5:5b-8 provide the explanation.
The 'P' is an explanation and elaboration, describing Christ's sacrifice with the language of love
Because sin brought death, and death affects all, the conclusion is that all have had sin, even before the law
Thematic addition: death reigned over those also whose sin was not in the likeness of Adam. Death reveals the children's likeness to their father, Adam, even when the manifestation of their sin does not.
Piper's concern ("Adam, Christ, and Justification pt. 2") that a reading of individual sins unto death requires a solution of individual acts of righteousness unto salvation is answered by the fact that death is a marker of the presence of sin in an individual. Paul is arguing that sin is present in all, through the means of Adam, by saying that death reigns over all.