Main point summary
On that day when God would overthrow the kingdoms of men, he will exalt his chosen servant Zerubbabel as King.
The word of the Lord came a second time to Haggai
f on the twenty-fourth day of the month,
“Speak to j Zerubbabel, governor of Judah, saying,
k I am about to shake the heavens and the earth,
and l to overthrow the throne of kingdoms.
I am about to destroy the strength of the kingdoms of the nations,
and m overthrow the chariots and their riders.
And the horses and their riders shall go down,
n every one by the sword of his brother.
On that day,
declares the Lord of hosts,
I will take you, O j Zerubbabel o my servant, the son of p Shealtiel,
declares the Lord ,
and make you q like a 1 signet ring,
o for I have chosen you,
declares the Lord of hosts.”
ZERUBBABEL AS A DAVIDIC KING. EPHREM THE SYRIAN: “The Jews sent to John and said to him, ‘Who are you?’ He confessed and said, ‘I am not the Messiah.’ They said to him, ‘Are you Elijah?’ He said, ‘No.’ ” But our Lord called him Elijah, as Scripture attests. However, when they interrogated him, he said, “I am not Elijah.” But Scripture does not say that John came in the body of Elijah but “in the spirit and the power of Elijah.” Elijah, who was taken up into the heavens, did not return to them, just as it was not David who later became king but Zerubbabel. The Pharisees, however, did not ask John, “Have you come in the spirit of Elijah?” but “Are you Elijah himself?” That is why he said to them, “No.” Why should he have needed to be Elijah himself, if the actions of Elijah were to be found present in John? Elisha intervened and stood between John and Elijah, lest John be judged by them, since Elijah was taken up in a sacred chariot, whereas [John’s] head was carried away on a dish by a corrupt young girl. COMMENTARY ON TATIAN’S DIATESSARON 3.10.
Haggai 2:20-23 outline
IV. The Restoration of Davidic Monarch(2:20–23) A. Date, Introduction, and Addressee (2:20-21) B. The Promised Restoration of Kingship (2:21–23) The Destruction of All Other Kingdoms(2:21-22) i. The Lord will shake the heavens and the earth(2:21) ii. The Lord will overthrow and destroy kingdoms of the nations(2:22) Assertion: The Lord will take his servant Zerubbabel (2:23) i. When: On that day(2:23) ii. Allusions to Davidic kingship: The use of the Hebrew verb "לָקַח" "laqach" Zerubbabel's identification as “son of Shealtiel” Zerubbabel's identification as "my servant" iii. Purpose: To be a "signet ring" iv. Ground: God have chosen him
Bridge and Application: A. The Problem : The kingdoms were not destroyed, and Zerubbabel did not become king. "Some see here an optimistic prophet who oversteps his boundaries and places far too much focus on the historical figure of Zerubbabel. There is, however, precedent for speaking about an individual while having his descendants in mind in the Hebrew Bible. Hosea 3:4-5, in speaking about the future when the Israelites will repent, speaks of David while meaning his descendants: For the Israelites will live many days without king or prince, without sacrifice or sacred stones, without ephod or idol. Afterward the Israelites will return and seek the LORD their God and David their king. They will come trembling to the LORD and to his blessings in the last days." - Boda "Similarly, Ezekiel 34:23-24; Ezekiel 37:24-25 anticipates the coming of David: I will place over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he will tend them; he will tend them and be their shepherd. I the LORD will be their God, and my servant David will be prince among them. I the LORD have spoken. My servant David will be king over them, and they will all have one shepherd. They will follow my laws and be careful to keep my decrees. They will live in the land I gave to my servant Jacob, the land where your fathers lived. They and their children and their children’s children will live there forever, and David my servant will be their prince forever." - Boda In the New Testament Christ himself uses that same principle of interpretating Old Testament figures as types or prophecies referring to later biblical figures when He interpreted the prophecies concerning Elijah as referring to John the Baptist in Matthew 11:13-14. B. Christ as the true and greater Zerubbabel Now Matthew 1:1-16 and Luke 3:23-28 make the connection between Jesus and Zerubbabel by including the latter in both genealogies that points to Christ as the fulfillment of these OT prophecies. This is the reason why we have Christmas. The birth of Jesus is more than just an occassion when we can get together with our families, take a vacation, strike out items in our wishlists. The first Christmas happened in order to establish God's kingdom through His Son Jesus Christ. And in a very real sense the Kingdom of God breakforth in the coming of Christ. And those whose King is Jesus, we are vice regents of Christ task to proclaim his rule because the Lord himself lay claim to all rule and authority over all creation just as he said in Matthew 28:18-20, "And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”" C. The Hope of Unshakable Kingdom Just like the people of God in the OT we too should be longing for the day when God will shake the heavens and the earth once more, to establish forever a “kingdom that cannot be shaken” (Heb. 12:28). D. Kiss the King But for those whose king is not Christ, the warning is clear, on that day, when he returns, he will destroy all the kingdoms of nations, and it will not be a beautiful sight. So now is the day of salvation, submit to the Lordship and Kingship of Christ. Kiss the Son, lest he be angry as the Psalmist says in Psalm 2:10–12, “Therefore, you kings, be wise; be warned, you rulers of the earth. Serve the LORD with fear and celebrate his rule with trembling. Kiss his son, or he will be angry and your way will lead to your destruction, for his wrath can flare up in a moment. Blessed are all who take refuge in him.” Find refuge in him alone for your salvation, and turn from your ways. Honor him by receiving Christ for all that he is for you.