Main point summary
Being a Christian means being an adult heir of God, so don't return to the law because that is childish and demonic.
Now I say,
I mean that
Now I mean that
as long as the heir is a 1 child,
ἐφʼ ὅσον χρόνον ὁ κληρονόμος νήπιός ἐστιν,
the heir, as long as he is a child,
the heir, as long as he is a minor, 1
he does not differ at all from a slave
οὐδὲν διαφέρει δούλου
is no different from a slave, 1
is no different from a slave,
although he is 2 owner of everything,
κύριος πάντων ὤν,
though he is the owner of everything,
though he is the owner 2 of everything.
but he is under guardians and 1 managers
ἀλλʼ ὑπὸ ἐπιτρόπους ἐστὶν καὶ οἰκονόμους
but he is under guardians and managers
But he is under guardians 3 and managers
until the date set by the father.
ἄχρι τῆς προθεσμίας τοῦ πατρός.
until the date set by his father.
until the date set by his 4 father.
So also we, while we were children,
οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς, ὅτε ἦμεν νήπιοι,
In the same way we also, when we were children,
So also we, when we were minors, 5
were held a in bondage under the 1 b elemental things of the world.
ὑπὸ τὰ στοιχεῖα τοῦ κόσμου ἤμεθα δεδουλωμένοι•
c were enslaved to the elementary principles 1 of the world.
were enslaved under the basic forces 6 of the world.
But when a the fullness of the time came,
ὅτε δὲ ἦλθεν τὸ πλήρωμα τοῦ χρόνου,
But d when the fullness of time had come,
But when the appropriate time 7 had come,
God sent forth His Son,
ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸν υἱὸν αὐτοῦ,
God sent forth his Son,
God sent out his Son,
b born of a woman,
γενόμενον ἐκ γυναικός,
e born f of woman,
born of a woman,
born c under 1 the Law,
γενόμενον ὑπὸ νόμον,
born g under the law,
born under the law,
so that He might redeem those who were under 1 the Law,
ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον ἐξαγοράσῃ,
h to redeem those who were under the law,
to redeem those who were under the law,
that we might receive the adoption as a sons.
ἵνα τὴν υἱοθεσίαν ἀπολάβωμεν.
so that we might receive i adoption as sons.
so that we may be adopted as sons with full rights. 8
Because you are sons,
Ὅτι δέ ἐστε υἱοί,
And because you are sons,
And because you are sons,
a God has sent forth the Spirit of His Son into our hearts,
ἐξαπέστειλεν ὁ θεὸς τὸ πνεῦμα τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ εἰς τὰς καρδίας ἡμῶν
God has sent j the Spirit of his Son into our hearts,
God sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts,
crying, “ b Abba! Father!”
κρᾶζον• αββα ὁ πατήρ.
crying, “Abba! Father!”
who calls 9 “ Abba! 10 Father!”
Therefore you are no longer a slave,
ὥστε οὐκέτι εἶ δοῦλος
So you are no longer a slave,
So you are no longer a slave
but a son;
but a son,
but a son,
and a if a son,
εἰ δὲ υἱός,
and if a son,
and if you are 11 a son,
then an heir 1 through God.
καὶ κληρονόμος διὰ θεοῦ.
then k an heir through God.
then you are also an heir through God. 12
Galatians 4:1-11 elaborates further the theme of the pedagogical rule of the law from Galatians 3:23-29 . However, Paul reintroduced the concept of receiving of the Spirit from Galatians 3:1-5 in verse 6 , reminding us his initial argument that we received the Spirit by faith, and not by works of the law. Also, we must still keep in mind the theme of salvation history as we interpret this passage. Another thing to take note of is Paul's use of the plural first person pronoun "we". Though primarily referring to the Jews, Paul now includes the Gentiles in it. We'll see later why is that the case. With that said let's proceed with the exposition of the passage.
Being under the Law is Spirtual Immaturity( vv. 1-3 ) The first clause of verse 1 connects this passage to the preceding verses. It can be rephrased as "This is what I mean." As Douglas Moo pointed out: " The phrase λέγω δέ (legō de, now I say) probably functions to introduce the material that follows as an elaboration and clarification of what has just been said (the phrase functions like this also in 1 Cor. 1:12 ; cf. also Gal. 5:16 ; 1 Cor. 7:8 )." Therefore we can say that this is just a restatement of Galatians 3:23-29. We must keep in mind though that they are not an "exact" parallel. Now Paul said that as long as the heir is still a minor(νήπιός), he is no different from a slave though he is the lord(κύριος) of everything, but he is under guardians and managers until the date set by his father. So also we, when we were minors(νήπιοι ), were enslaved under the elements(στοιχεῖα) of the world. Few words demand our attention here. First is the word νήπιός. Which means, unlearned or a minor, but not necessarily an infant. Second is the word κύριος. Though he is lord of everything, he is no different from a slave. I think "lord" or "master" is the best translation of the greek word since he's not yet in fact the owner of the inheritance. Then Paul goes on to say that; in the same way when we were minors, we're enslaved under the elements of the world. Now the third word is στοιχεῖα. This is probably the hardest word to translate or interpret in this passage. But before we look into the possible ways to interpret this word, I must point out first that unlike the "we" from Galatians 3:23-29, Paul now includes the Gentiles in the pronoun. The clue that there's a change of referent here is instead of saying under the law, Paul says "under the elements of the world". Because technically speaking, the Gentiles, before the coming of Christ, doesn't have the Mosaic law. According to Ephesians 2:11-14; the Gentiles were alienated from the commonwealth of Israel. They were without God in the world. This is an important consideration in order to properly understand in what sense the Gentiles were under the law if they weren't given the Mosaic law. What does the phrase "elements of the world" means? There are at least three nuances: 1. It commonly refers to the materials or fundamental elements from which all matter in the universe was composed. Usually identified as air, earth, fire, and water. It was used the same way three times in the LXX(4Macc 12:13; Wis. 7:17; 19:18). This usage also occured in the writings of Philo, Josephus, and the apostolic fathers, and in two of the seven NT occurrences (2 Pet. 3:10, 12). 2. The word may also mean in the sense of the “essential principles” of a particular area of study. This meaning is also found in the NT, in Heb. 5:12, where the author refers to “the elementary truths [τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς ἀρχῆς] of God’s word.” Thus it is a some form of a life principle or a law that the Gentiles adhere to. 3. The word is a reference to spiritual beings. Though it is never given this application in any pre-Christian writing, many scholars are convinced that the word was being used this way in Paul’s day. The three views are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and all of them might work in the context. One and three can be reconciled since the material components of the universe were often associated with spiritual beings or gods. While the second option can also be reconciled to the other two. Because such elementary basic principles in life may have been derived from the beliefs of gods and other superstitions. Hence, such beliefs are to be considered as childish. But since in verse 8 Paul said that formerly the Galatians were enslaved to those that by nature are not "gods", I think the third option is what he had in mind. The Gentiles derived their "laws" from what they believed to be as gods, but in reality demonic beings. Paul is not suggesting that the Mosaic law is the same as the "laws" of the pagans. What's being said is that the Gentiles before the coming of Christ and even today before conversion, were enslaved by worldly principles that of demonic origin. So when the Galatians tried to go back in law keeping, they were in essence not really returning to the Mosaic law, instead it's a return to their former pagan worldly demonic principles, garbed in Jewish rituals such as circumcision, dietary laws, and observance of days, months, seasons and years(vv. 8-11). Born under the Law to redeem those under the Law(vv. 4-5) And now, here is the good news. Verse 4 said; "But when the fullness of time came." Again this signifies the shifting of the two ages. The age of the law, and the coming of the seed and or the age of faith. This was the date set by the father. The Son was sent forth by God by being born of a woman, and born under the law. The phrase "born of a woman" shows the humanity of Christ. This is incarnation. The Son of God coming in the flesh. That is, taking the form of a slave. Not only that. Jesus, the King, and owner of the universe, and the true heir of Abraham, was doubly a slave, because he was born under the law. Now, Paul gave the two fold purpose of the coming of Christ in relation to his being born under the law. First, the Son was born under the law to redeem those who were under the law. Second, He was sent forth so that we might receive adaption as sons. Those who were under the law in the salvation historical sense, must refer to the Jews. But here, given the two senses by which people were "under a guardian": Jews in the old covenant under the Mosaic law, and all, specially the Gentiles under the elements of the world(worldly principles that originate from demons), Paul was using the term "law" quite loosely to include both Jews and Gentiles. That is, he envisions the Gentiles to be under a some kind of "law", in the sense that they too lived under the dominion of sin and the enslaving influence of demons, but not necessarily the same as being under the Mosaic law in a more technical sense. Now the closest parallel of this verse in Romans 8:3-4 explains to us how did Christ redeemed us from the dominion of sin; "For God achieved what the law could not do because it was weakened through the flesh. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and concerning sin, he condemned sin in the flesh, so that the righteous requirement of the law may be fulfilled in us... ” Meaning, as the one who lived under the law, Jesus took the curse of the law on himself (3:13) so that he could liberate and free those who were captivated by the power of sin(1:4-5). Also, by abolishing the law through his death, he, according to Ephesians 2:14-15, "destroyed the middle wall of partition and hostility" and therefore provide adoption as sons for the Gentiles. Those who were once alienated from the commonwealth of Israel were brought near, and granted full right to sonship by virtue of adoption. No longer Slaves, but Adult Sons(vv. 6-7) Now, in verse 6-7 Paul returns to where he left off in Galatians 3:28-29. I think this is an explanation of how there could be unity in Christ. It is because of adoption and the sending of the Spirit of the Son into our hearts, crying, "Abba! Father!" This acclamation that God is our Father is the expression of the indwelling Spirit of the Son. So if you have the Spirit of Christ, whether you're a Jew or a Gentile, you are no longer a slave. You're no longer a minor, but an adult son, and if you are sons, meaning you are Abraham's offsprings, then you are heirs through God, that is, you are heirs according to promise.
Legalism is worst than Slavery to Demons At this very moment, many are praying, fasting, singing praises, reading the bible, studying theology, attending a service, sharing the gospel, memorizing a passage from Scriptures, preparing a sermon, and delivering a sermon because they have to. That is, their primary motivation for obedience is because God commanded it. You are obeying as slaves and not as sons and daughters of God. That is worst than obeying the devil. Because at least, while you were still under the power of sin, when you obeyed the bidding of your father the Devil, you enjoyed it. But now that we are no longer under the law and the power of sin, why can't we obey God, no longer just because I ought to but because I love to? Some of us only obey because we want to please some judging eyes. Others will obey only when God pays their services through "blessings". Some, even worst, have come to use their service to God just to numb the pain of being convicted by the Holy Spirit of hidden sins in us. We are slave workers, always waiting for our wage and this wage can be the approval of men, material blessings, money, and removal of guilt.
The great gift God gave to us because we are his sons is the gift of the Spirit. Paul says that anyone who is a Son is “led by the Spirit” (Rom. 8:14). While Paul does not connect “sonship” with being “led by the Spirit” in Galatians, he certainly thinks they are connected because he sees Christians as sons (Gal. 3:26-4:7), and he sees Christians as those who are “under the Spirit” (5:16-26). A son of God, then, is one who is “led by God’s Spirit.” Legalists are led by the law; hedonists are led by their desires; materialists are led by their possessions. But sons of God, Christians, are led by the Spirit. What prompts their actions, what stirs their emotions, what guides their behavior, and what determines their careers is God’s Spirit. Furthermore, sons of God do not fear and worry about where the Spirit will lead them. They know that God’s Spirit will lead them perfectly into God’s will and God’s blessing so they march behind confidently and joyously. Are you a “son of God”? Are you intimate with God, are you free from the law’s awful curse, and are you led by God’s Spirit? You can become one by faith. “You are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus” (v. 26).