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Randall Rains
Veteran and 1983 graduate of LIFE Bible College in LA, CA.
User since 2021
Randall's published pages
At Eph 1:17 Paul alludes to the Knowledge of God. Here Peter expounds on that foundational theme.
2 Peter 1:1-11
It is not WHAT we know, but WHO that let's us know/attain/experience what God has planned for those who trust and obey the Word of Truth.
Ephesians 1:15-23
One long sentence (v3-14). Does it represent a hymn?
Ephesians 1:1-14
Paul's teaching in Ch 12-15 must be seen in light of his explanation of grace as it relates to Israel in Ch 9-11.
Romans 12-15
Paul's plans to visit are sincere but subject to the will of his Lord
Romans 15:22-33
As the night sky begins to lighten as the dawn approaches we are reminded of our Lord's own words - Love your neighbor as yourself.
Romans 13:8-14
The right minded member of the body will show genuine love.
Romans 12:9-21
Paul explores several aspects of individuality within the corporate.
Romans 12:1-21
The LXX uses an IF/THEN construction between v4 and v5ff in translating the Hebrew text.
Haggai 1:1-6
Paul calls on a few by name then provides a glorious exposition of what it means to have the Lord near and to have God among them.
Philippians 4:2-9
Paul stretching forward to the upward call of God in (the knowing of?) Christ Jesus!
Philippians 3:12-4:1
Paul assumes those who hear these words share in the Knowing of Christ.
Philippians 3:1-11
What can compare to the 'surpassingness' of knowing Christ our Lord?
Philippians 3:1-11
Paul promises to send from his side two men, a brother and a dear son, to comfort those in Philippi who have been such a comfort to him.
Philippians 2:19-30
view all (15 total)
Romans 15
Romans 15:8-21
Paul's diplomatic appeal to a Church he did not found, but for which he has an Apostle's heart.
#servant
#hope
#scripture_witness
Published April 29th, 2022
Author
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Main point summary
Arc 15:8-21
Dia 15:8-21
notes
Main point summary
The Servant Savior our only Hope and Example
editing
Arc 15:8-21
NT
Romans 15:8-21
The question here is: do the following three (1,2,3) statements each form predicates or are the participle phrases (2,3) separate adverbials, composing the environment in which their kindness can take place. It is as if he teaches even as he praises. This seems to refer back to the discussion on eating foods and keeping of days. To act with 'kindness' in teaching.
en + Neuter Dative article + infinitive when,while Next Proposition: eis + Neuter Acc Article + infinitive Purpose Extended explication of πιστεύειν from TDNT
Rom 1:5; Rom 16:26 Inclusio
λέγω ⸀ γὰρ
For I tell you
⸀ Χριστὸν διάκονον ⸀ γεγενῆσθαι περιτομῆς ὑπὲρ ἀληθείας θεοῦ,
Christ became a servant to the circumcised concerning the truthfulness of God,
εἰς τὸ βεβαιῶσαι τὰς ἐπαγγελίας τῶν πατέρων,
in order to confirm the promises given to the patriarchs,
τὰ δὲ ἔθνη ὑπὲρ ἐλέους δοξάσαι τὸν θεόν·
but (also) in order that the Gentiles might glorify God for his mercy.
καθὼς γέγραπται·
As it is written,
Διὰ τοῦτο ἐξομολογήσομαί σοι ἐν ἔθνεσι, καὶ τῷ ὀνοματί σου ψαλῶ.
“Therefore I will praise you among the Gentiles, and sing to your name.”
ideaexplanation
καὶ πάλιν λέγει·
And again it is said,
Εὐφράνθητε, ἔθνη, μετὰ τοῦ λαοῦ αὐτοῦ.
“Rejoice, O Gentiles, with his people.”
καὶ πάλιν·
And again,
Αἰνεῖτε, ⸂ πάντα τὰ ἔθνη, τὸν κύριον ⸃ , καὶ ⸀ ἐπαινεσάτωσαν αὐτὸν πάντες οἱ λαοί.
“Praise the Lord, all you Gentiles, and let all the peoples extol him.”
καὶ πάλιν Ἠσαΐας λέγει·
And again Isaiah says,
Ἔσται ἡ ῥίζα τοῦ Ἰεσσαί, καὶ ὁ ἀνιστάμενος ἄρχειν ἐθνῶν· ἐπ’ αὐτῷ ἔθνη ἐλπιοῦσιν.
“The root of Jesse will come, even he who arises to rule the Gentiles; in him will the Gentiles hope.”
series
alternative
actionpurpose
generalspecific
ὁ δὲ θεὸς τῆς ἐλπίδος πληρώσαι ὑμᾶς πάσης χαρᾶς καὶ εἰρήνης
May the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace
ἐν τῷ πιστεύειν,
while you are trusting, obeying, fearing and hoping in Him,
actionresult
εἰς τὸ περισσεύειν ὑμᾶς ἐν τῇ ἐλπίδι ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου.
so that you may abound in hope by the power of the Holy Spirit.
inference
Πέπεισμαι δέ, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ αὐτὸς ἐγὼ περὶ ὑμῶν,
I myself am satisfied about you, my brothers,
ὅτι καὶ αὐτοὶ μεστοί ἐστε ἀγαθωσύνης,
that you yourselves are full of kindness,
πεπληρωμένοι ⸀ πάσης γνώσεως,
having been filled with all knowledge,
δυνάμενοι καὶ ⸀ ἀλλήλους νουθετεῖν.
even able to instruct one another.
progression
situationresponse
⸀ τολμηρότερον δὲ ἔγραψα ⸀ ὑμῖν ἀπὸ μέρους,
But on some points I have written to you very boldly
ὡς ἐπαναμιμνῄσκων ὑμᾶς,
by way of reminding you,
actionmanner
διὰ τὴν χάριν τὴν δοθεῖσάν μοι ⸀ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ
because of the grace given me by God
εἰς τὸ εἶναί με λειτουργὸν ⸂ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ ⸃ εἰς τὰ ἔθνη,
in order to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles
ἱερουργοῦντα τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ θεοῦ,
in the priestly service of the gospel of God,
ἵνα γένηται ἡ προσφορὰ τῶν ἐθνῶν εὐπρόσδεκτος,
in order that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable,
ἡγιασμένη ἐν πνεύματι ἁγίῳ.
sanctified by the Holy Spirit.
ground
concessive
ἔχω οὖν ⸀ τὴν καύχησιν ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν·
In Christ Jesus, then, I have reason to be proud of my work for God.
οὐ γὰρ τολμήσω ⸂ τι λαλεῖν ⸃
For I will not venture to speak of anything(S)
ὧν οὐ κατειργάσατο Χριστὸς δι’ ἐμοῦ εἰς ὑπακοὴν ἐθνῶν, λόγῳ καὶ ἔργῳ,
except what(P) Christ has accomplished through me to bring the Gentiles to obedience—by word and deed,
ἐν δυνάμει σημείων καὶ τεράτων, ἐν δυνάμει ⸀ πνεύματος·
by the power of signs and wonders, by the power of the Spirit of God—
ὥστε με ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ κύκλῳ μέχρι τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ πεπληρωκέναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ Χριστοῦ,
so that from Jerusalem and all the way around to Illyricum I have fulfilled the ministry of the gospel of Christ;
οὕτως δὲ ⸀ φιλοτιμούμενον εὐαγγελίζεσθαι
and thus I make it my ambition to preach the gospel,
οὐχ ὅπου ὠνομάσθη Χριστός,
not where Christ has already been named,
ἵνα μὴ ἐπ’ ἀλλότριον θεμέλιον οἰκοδομῶ,
lest I build on someone else’s foundation,
ἀλλὰ καθὼς γέγραπται·
but as it is written,
⸂ Οἷς οὐκ ἀνηγγέλη περὶ αὐτοῦ
“Those who have never been told of him
ὄψονται ⸃ ,
will see,
καὶ οἳ οὐκ ἀκηκόασιν
and those who have never heard
συνήσουσιν.
will understand.”
Parallelism
restate
Par
sbl
mine
discourse
Dia 15:8-21
scripturetext
components
Romans 15:8-21
vsnum
Romans 15:8
table
γὰρ
solid
drop
revrocket
equal
line
subjectverb
pred
λέγω
directobject
shelf
Χριστὸν
cword
vertical
infinitive
γεγενῆσθαι
διάκονον
prepphrase
pstack
περιτομῆς
ὑπὲρ
ἀληθείας
θεοῦ
dashed
free
line2
line1
Romans 15:9
smartline
line2
participle
εἰς
τὸ
rocketship
τὰ
ἔθνη
βεβαιῶσαι
τὰς
ἐπαγγελίας
τῶν
πατέρων
δοξάσαι
τὸν
θεόν
ὑπὲρ
ἐλέους
obtuse
γέγραπται
ἐξομολογήσομαί
indirectobj
σοι
ἐν
ἔθνεσι
ψαλῶ
τῷ
ὀνοματί
σου
καὶ
Διὰ
τοῦτο
λέγει
πάλιν
equals
ἔθνη
Εὐφράνθητε
μετὰ
τοῦ
λαοῦ
αὐτοῦ
(X)
πάλιν
Αἰνεῖτε
τὸν
κύριον
τὰ
ἔθνη
πάντα
ἐπαινεσάτωσαν
αὐτὸν
οἱ
λαοί
πάντες
καὶ
Ἠσαΐας
λέγει
πάλιν
dblrocketship
ῥίζα
Ἔσται
τοῦ
Ἰεσσαί
ἀνιστάμενος
quoteshelf
ἄρχειν
ἐθνῶν
καὶ
ἔθνη
ἐλπιοῦσιν
ἐπ’
αὐτῷ
καὶ
καὶ
καὶ
καθὼς
δὲ
ttext
Romans 15:13
δὲ
θεὸς
πληρώσαι
τῆς
ἐλπίδος
ὑμᾶς
dblaccusative
πάσης
χαρᾶς
εἰρήνης
καὶ
ἐν
τῷ
πιστεύειν
εἰς
τὸ
ὑμᾶς
περισσεύειν
ἐν
τῇ
ἐλπίδι
ἐν
δυνάμει
πνεύματος
ἁγίου
line2
line1
Romans 15:14
δέ
ἀδελφοί
μου
line1
line1
ἐγὼ
καὶ
αὐτὸς
Πέπεισμαι
περὶ
ὑμῶν
αὐτοὶ
καὶ
ἐστε
predicate
μεστοί
ἀγαθωσύνης
πεπληρωμένοι
δυνάμενοι
καὶ
γνώσεως
πάσης
νουθετεῖν
ἀλλήλους
ὅτι
line1
line2
Romans 15:15
δὲ
ἔγραψα
τολμηρότερον
ὑμῖν
ἀπὸ
μέρους
διὰ
τὴν
χάριν
τὴν
δοθεῖσάν
μοι
ὑπὸ
τοῦ
θεοῦ
εἰς
τὸ
με
εἶναί
λειτουργὸν
Χριστοῦ
Ἰησοῦ
εἰς
τὰ
ἔθνη
ἱερουργοῦντα
τὸ
εὐαγγέλιον
τοῦ
θεοῦ
προσφορὰ
γένηται
εὐπρόσδεκτος
ἡγιασμένη
ἐν
πνεύματι
ἁγίῳ
τῶν
ἐθνῶν
ἵνα
ἐπαναμιμνῄσκων
ὑμᾶς
ὡς
line1
line2
Romans 15:16
Romans 15:17
οὖν
ἔχω
τὴν
καύχησιν
τὰ
πρὸς
τὸν
θεόν
ἐν
Χριστῷ
Ἰησοῦ
τολμήσω
οὐ
λαλεῖν
τι
γὰρ
line2
line1
Χριστὸς
κατειργάσατο
ὧν
οὐ
δι’
ἐμοῦ
εἰς
ὑπακοὴν
ἐθνῶν
λόγῳ
ἔργῳ
καὶ
ἐν
δυνάμει
σημείων
τεράτων
καὶ
ἐν
δυνάμει
πνεύματος
με
φιλοτιμούμενον
πεπληρωκέναι
τὸ
εὐαγγέλιον
τοῦ
Χριστοῦ
ἀπὸ
μέχρι
Ἰερουσαλὴμ
τοῦ
Ἰλλυρικοῦ
καὶ
κύκλῳ
εὐαγγελίζεσθαι
Χριστός
ὠνομάσθη
οἰκοδομῶ
μὴ
ἐπ’
θεμέλιον
ἀλλότριον
ἀλλὰ
καθὼς
ἵνα
οὐχ
ὅπου
δὲ
οὕτως
ὥστε
Romans 15:18
γέγραπται
ὄψονται
ἀνηγγέλη
οὐκ
Οἷς
περὶ
αὐτοῦ
συνήσουσιν
οἳ
ἀκηκόασιν
οὐκ
καὶ
line2
line2
Romans 15:19
Romans 15:20
Romans 15:21
diagram
Comments
Matthew Carver
Randall, the way you have it now, are you seeing the quotations from 9b-12b as fulfilling the second purpose (9a) only, and not the first purpose (8c)?
Randall Rains
Yes. The δὲ in 9a is mildly adversative so ‘but…’. I think that is the structure of the argument even if we could argue logically that the two are connected. The Jewish misunderstanding that had developed since the time of Malachi was to focus on the promises as they pertained to themselves, hence the Judiaisers that plagued the churches that Paul had planted. I truly welcome the conversation. Thanks.
Matthew Carver
Randall, I welcome the conversation also. I do see what you mean and it is compelling. How would the argument, structured as you have it, fit in with the bigger argument of the previous chapter and half? ie. Since it seems that 8a begins indicating this entire passage is a Ground of chapter 14-15:1-7, how would this Ground the main point of those passages?
Randall Rains
If 15:7 is a summary verse about unity, not only between individuals but also between groups, then to define Christ’s ministry relative to Jew and then Gentile provides the ground for our unity.
Matthew Carver
So not having done a thorough study of this passage I feel all the holes in my thoughts, but what would be your argument against putting 8c and 9a under one arc perhaps as a Series, and then both 8c and 9a being the idea that is explained from 9b-12b. Though I haven't dived into each of the individual promises from 9b-12a in their OT context, it seems that they could be promises given to Jews that are inclusive of the Gentiles, rather than just promises to gentiles alone. If this were true it would fit with the context offering Ground for showing Jews that Gentiles were also included in their own promises together with them throughout the OT. Your thoughts?
Randall Rains
Two of the statements directly address the Gentiles - "Rejoice, O Gentiles..." & "PTL all you Gentiles...". Also, one way to test your theory is to read 8b/c skip 9a and evaluate whether 9b-12b being Ground sounds true. In my reading of it in that manner I don't see the Ground working, in fact, it doesn't seem to make sense at all. The scriptural references do not seem to apply to 8b/c. So, it would seem, they apply only to 9a, again arguing for the Alt relationship or something similar.

And again, the δὲ in 9a is mildly adversative setting it apart from 8c in some way. 

I don't find the idea you propose unsupported in scripture and history but I think with the Arc we are trying to frame Paul's argument here in this letter, addressed to a specific audience. Given that criteria I still see the Alt relationship being supportable. 
Matthew Carver
Good response Randall. I like your method of testing by leaving out 9a to see if it makes sense.
Randall Rains
I am translating through 1 Peter with some Brothers and we are working through this text 3:15 "...but in your hearts honor Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you; yet do it with gentleness and respect, 16 having a good conscience..." To have gracious conversation is a blessing.
Randall Rains
It seems that these two alternative purposes are expressed as each being fulfilled but in applying to different groups - Jews and Gentiles - they are alternate.
Rob Elphick
Hi Randall, I wanted to ask about the "A" connecting 8c and 9a. How are you seeing that work?
Disclaimer: The opinions and conclusions expressed on this page are those of the author and may or may not accord with the positions of Biblearc or Bethlehem College & Seminary.