Main point summary
Because of who Christ Jesus is and the necessity of our endurance for our being part of his household, we ought to consider Jesus, take care to check our hearts and exhort our brothers and sisters every day so that we endure, without falling away.
Therefore, holy brothers, 1 you who share in r a heavenly calling, consider Jesus, s the apostle and high priest of our confession,
Therefore sanctified brothers of Christ, who are called to share his glory, fix your eyes upon Christ Jesus - the sent one and high priestly mediator of our faith
Ὅθεν, ἀδελφοὶ ἅγιοι, κλήσεως ἐπουρανίου μέτοχοι, κατανοήσατε τὸν ἀπόστολον καὶ ἀρχιερέα τῆς ὁμολογίας ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦν,
who was faithful to him who appointed him,
who kept faith with the one who entrusted him (with his house),
πιστὸν ὄντα τῷ ποιήσαντι αὐτὸν ὡς καὶ Μωϋσῆς ἐν [ὅλῳ] τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ.
t just as Moses also was faithful in all God’s 1 house.
just as Moses was regarded as one who kept faith in being entrusted with God's house.
For Jesus has been counted worthy of more glory than Moses—
Since Jesus has been accounted as worthy of more honour than Moses
πλείονος γὰρ οὗτος δόξης παρὰ Μωϋσῆν ἠξίωται, καθʼ ὅσον πλείονα τιμὴν ἔχει τοῦ οἴκου ὁ κατασκευάσας αὐτόν•
as much more glory as the builder of a house has more honor than the house itself.
just as the builder and founder of a household has more honour than the household itself.
(For every house is built by someone,
Because while every household is built by someone
πᾶς γὰρ οἶκος κατασκευάζεται ὑπό τινος, ὁ δὲ πάντα κατασκευάσας θεός.
but u the builder of all things is God.)
the builder of everything is God.
v Now Moses was faithful in all God’s house w as a servant,
Continuing the idea of Moses' faithfulness, he was faithful in all of God's household as a servant,
καὶ Μωϋσῆς μὲν πιστὸς ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ οἴκῳ αὐτοῦ ὡς θεράπων εἰς μαρτύριον τῶν λαληθησομένων,
x to testify to the things that were to be spoken later,
by bearing witness to what was going to be revealed later,
but Christ is faithful over God’s house as y a son.
unlike Christ Jesus who is also faithful over God's household, but as his Son and heir!
Χριστὸς δὲ ὡς υἱὸς ἐπὶ τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ• οὗ οἶκός ἐσμεν ἡμεῖς, ἐάν[περ] τὴν παρρησίαν καὶ τὸ καύχημα τῆς ἐλπίδος κατάσχωμεν.
And z we are his house
We are his household
if indeed we a hold fast our confidence
(only) if we truly hold firm and fixed to our confidence
and our boasting in our hope. 1
and our boast which is in the hope we have.
Therefore, as the Holy Spirit says,
Therefore (since Jesus is faithful over us, his household, as a son), just as the Holy Spirit says,
Διό, καθὼς λέγει τὸ πνεῦμα τὸ ἅγιον• σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε,
b “Today, if you hear his voice,
" If you hear his voice today,
do not harden your hearts
then do not harden your hearts
μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν ὡς ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ κατὰ τὴν ἡμέραν τοῦ πειρασμοῦ ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ,
as in the rebellion, on the day of testing in the wilderness,
just as during the rebellion, on the day I was tested in the wilderness,
where your fathers put me to the test
where your fathers tested me
οὗ ἐπείρασαν οἱ πατέρες ὑμῶν ἐν δοκιμασίᾳ καὶ εἶδον τὰ ἔργα μου
and saw my works for c forty years.
and saw my works and power for forty years, as a result .
Therefore I was provoked with that generation, and said,
Therefore I was provoked with that generation of people, and said,
τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη• διὸ προσώχθισα τῇ γενεᾷ ταύτῃ καὶ εἶπον• ἀεὶ πλανῶνται τῇ καρδίᾳ, αὐτοὶ δὲ οὐκ ἔγνωσαν τὰς ὁδούς μου,
‘They always go astray in their heart;
"They always wander far from me in their heart;
they have not known my ways.’
they have not known my ways."
d As I swore in my wrath, ‘They shall not enter my rest.’”
As I swore in my anger, "They will never enter my rest!"
ὡς ὤμοσα ἐν τῇ ὀργῇ μου• εἰ εἰσελεύσονται εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσίν μου.
Take care, brothers,
So also you take care, brothers,
Βλέπετε, ἀδελφοί, μήποτε ἔσται ἔν τινι ὑμῶν καρδία πονηρὰ ἀπιστίας ἐν τῷ ἀποστῆναι ἀπὸ θεοῦ ζῶντος,
lest there be in any of you an evil, unbelieving heart,
in order that there be no evil, unbelieving heart in any of you,
leading you to fall away from e the living God.
resulting in you falling away from the living God.
But f exhort one another every day,
And exhort, push and encourage one another each day,
ἀλλὰ παρακαλεῖτε ἑαυτοὺς καθʼ ἑκάστην ἡμέραν, ἄχρις οὗ τὸ σήμερον καλεῖται, ἵνα μὴ σκληρυνθῇ τις ἐξ ὑμῶν ἀπάτῃ τῆς ἁμαρτίας -
as long as it is called “today,”
whenever it is called today, before it is too late.
that none of you may be hardened by g the deceitfulness of sin.
in order that not one of you maybe led to unbelief by the deceitfulness of sin.
For we have come to share in Christ,
Because we have come to partake in Christ and are his household,
μέτοχοι γὰρ τοῦ Χριστοῦ γεγόναμεν, ἐάνπερ τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς ὑποστάσεως μέχρι τέλους βεβαίαν κατάσχωμεν -
h if indeed we hold our original confidence firm to the end.
if we indeed persevere in our race, keeping our beginning-faith all the way to the end.
As it is said, b “Today, if you hear his voice,
Just as it is said, "If you hear his voice today,
ἐν τῷ λέγεσθαι• σήμερον ἐὰν τῆς φωνῆς αὐτοῦ ἀκούσητε, μὴ σκληρύνητε τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν ὡς ἐν τῷ παραπικρασμῷ.
do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion.”
then do not harden your hearts as in the rebellion."
For i who were those who heard
Because, who were those who heard,
τίνες γὰρ ἀκούσαντες παρεπίκραναν; ἀλλʼ οὐ πάντες οἱ ἐξελθόντες ἐξ Αἰγύπτου διὰ Μωϋσέως;
and yet rebelled?
Was it not j all those who left Egypt led by Moses?
A: It was all of those who left Egypt, being led by Moses.
And with whom was he provoked for forty years?
And with whom was God provoked for 40 years?
τίσιν δὲ προσώχθισεν τεσσεράκοντα ἔτη; οὐχὶ τοῖς ἁμαρτήσασιν, ὧν τὰ κῶλα ἔπεσεν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ;
Was it not with those who sinned, k whose bodies fell in the wilderness?
A: It was with those who sinned, i.e. those whose limbs were left strewn in the wilderness.
And to whom did he swear that l they would not enter his rest,
And to whom did he swear by his life that they would not enter into his rest?
τίσιν δὲ ὤμοσεν μὴ εἰσελεύσεσθαι εἰς τὴν κατάπαυσιν αὐτοῦ εἰ μὴ τοῖς ἀπειθήσασιν;
but to those who were disobedient?
A: It was to those who were disobeying.
So we see that m they were unable to enter
Therefore , we see that they were unable to enter his rest
καὶ βλέπομεν ὅτι οὐκ ἠδυνήθησαν εἰσελθεῖν διʼ ἀπιστίαν.
because of unbelief.
because they had no belief.
Cf. 2:11-17 It's the one who sanctifies that enables these brothers to be referred to as 'holy'
Calling implies the caller and the person called. The heavenly vocation was the most important one.
Apostle: sent one, like the angels and pioneer, cf. 2:2-3, 10 High Priest: the one who mediates between the people and God, cf. 2:17 Jesus is both the one sent and the one who mediates!
κατανοήσατε fix your eyes/thoughts on and take notice of
Cf. Numbers 12:6-8
Cf. 1:1-2 Moses revelation was not complete and bore witness to things not yet
It's interesting that the present tense is used for something the Holy Spirit said in the past.
Both servant and son needed to be faithful over the household they were in charge of. Unlike the servant, the son is an heir of that very household.
1 Peter 2:5 (images the temple of God) 1 Corinthians 3:16 Ephesians 2:19-22 1 Timothy 3:15
Our being part of God's house is dependant on our perseverance. This does not mean that if we don't persevere, we lose our salvation. To rephrase the same sentence negatively: "If we do not hold fast our confidence and our boasting in our hope, we are (presently) not his house. An almost similar statement is made in v14.
See notes: Exodus Recap
cf. 3:8. Hardeness=evil, unbelieving heart.
ἀποστῆναι While they turned away from God, you shouldn't! Cf. Numbers 14:9
As opposed to a dead non-God or a God not trustworthy and dangerous.
Cf. 10:25; Acts 2:46-47
While today is everyday, there is also a sense in which today is not tomorrow. Today is urgent. Tomorrow maybe too late. Exhort today, not when it's too late.
μέτοχοι we are sharers in the Messiah, unlike other Jews, who are not. This began at an even (hence, we have come to share).
apistia Rebellious, persistent disbelief. Literally, without any belief.
Cf. Numbers 14:11
Cf. Numbers 14:29,32
Cf. Numbers 14:21-35
Exodus 3:1-17, Exodus 17:1-7 (Massah and Meribah at Sinai/Horeb) Numbers 13-14 Numbers 20:1-13 (Meribah at Kadesh 40 years after Exodus 17) Deuteronomy 6:23 Acts 7 1 Corinthians 10:1-13
What all has been said about Jesus in Hebrews 1-3? Why does he say all these things? What commands do we see from Hebrews 1-3? What is propitiation? Can we fall away and lose our salvation? Because we are justified, does our obedience matter; what obedience does God expect? How are we to persevere? What (Who) is the guarantee of our perseverance? Who is Jesus? Why do we need to consider him? How do we consider him?