Main point summary
As the disciples submit to the revelation of the Holy Spirit in Scripture regarding Judas and his replacement, God reveals Matthias as the one selected for apostolic service.
In those days Peter stood up among j the brothers (the company of persons was in all about 120)
“Brothers, k the Scripture had to be fulfilled,
which the Holy Spirit spoke beforehand by the mouth of David
concerning Judas, l who became a guide to those who arrested Jesus.
For m he was numbered among us
and was allotted his share in n this ministry.”
(Now this man o acquired a field with p the reward of his wickedness,
and falling headlong 1
he burst open in the middle
and all his bowels gushed out.
And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem,
so that the field was called q in their own language Akeldama, that is, Field of Blood.)
“For it is written in the Book of Psalms,
r “‘May his camp become desolate,
and let there be no one to dwell in it’;
and s “‘Let another take his office.’
So one of the men
who have accompanied us during t all the time that the Lord Jesus u went in and out among us, v beginning from the baptism of John until the day when w he was taken up from us—
one of these men must become with us x a witness to his resurrection.”
And they put forward two, Joseph called y Barsabbas, who was also called z Justus, and a Matthias.
And b they prayed and said,
“You, Lord, c who know the hearts of all, show which one of these two
you have chosen to take the place in d this ministry and e apostleship
from which Judas turned aside
to go to his own place.”
And they cast lots for them,
and the lot fell on Matthias,
and he was numbered with the eleven apostles.
NET Translator's Notes Or “ and was chosen to have a share in this ministry .” The term λαγχάνω (lancanw) here and in 2 Pet 1:1 [obtained] can be understood as referring to the process of divine choice and thus be translated, “was chosen to have.”
Those days = 10 days between Christ's ascension and Pentecost 50 days from Passover to Pentecost Acts 1:3 = 40 days till ascension
ver 15-17 How many days were "in those days"? According to ver 16, why did Judas face judgement and need replacing? Why does Peter mention the work of the Holy Spirit here? How did he work? Why did the other apostles who died not get replaced? What 2 reasons does Peter give for the settling of this matter?
Luke uses the verb πληρόω (plēroō) twenty-five times in his two volumes (Luke nine times, Acts sixteen times), often with a note that a divine utterance (Luke 1:20) or a passage (Luke 4:21) is fulfilled (Luke 1:20, 2:40, 3:5, 4:21, 7:1, 9:31, 21:24, 22:16, 24:44; Acts 1:16, 2:2,28, 3:18, 5:3,28, 7:23,30, 9:23, 12:25, 13:25,27 , 52, 14:26 , 19:21 , 24:27). Only here and in Luke 4:21 is “Scripture” combined with the verb. When the verb is tied neither to an event nor to Scripture, it often refers to a person being full, to an attribute, to an emotion, or to a place being full (Luke 2:40; Acts 2:2,28; 5:3), such as Jerusalem being full of the apostles’ teaching (Acts 5:28). Time can also be filled up (7:30 [forty years]; 9:23). The invoking of Scripture for this horrible event of Judas’s defection and for Jesus’s death, which came from it, shows that Jesus’s death and the betrayal of one of the original Twelve were not outside God’s plan or awareness On 'it was necessary': Luke 9:22, 17:25, 24:7,26, 44; Acts 3:21, 9:16, 14:22. God’s plan is being played out. Bock, Darrell L.. Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) (Kindle Locations 2403-2407, 29129-29130). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
The means of the Holy Spirit speaking was through David.
On God speaking: Acts 2:16; 3:18, 21, 25; 4:25; 15:7; 28:25 Even though they are not yet indwelt by the promised Holy Spirit, he speaks through Scripture
The psalms Peter cites (Psalm 69:25; 109:8) are about the unrighteous or the enemies of God, who ultimately are judged. Judas belongs in this category, so Peter applies the text to him in what is called hermeneutically a typological-prophetic manner Bock, Darrell L.. Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) (Kindle Locations 2418-2420). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
Scripture leads Peter to ensure that the core apostolic circle consists of twelve members. The move to replace Judas is part of the judgment Judas experiences. Williams (1990: 109) makes the point that it is Judas’s apostasy, not his death, that requires his replacement because, after the death of James son of Zebedee in Acts 12:2, no replacement is made or noted. Once a faithful member becomes the replacement, the effort to have twelve is not to be continued perpetually. Wikenhauser (1961:33) recalls Jesus’s promise to the Twelve that they would inherit twelve thrones on his return. This promise might well have motivated Peter here (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:28–30). So the slot must be filled, and when Matthias is elected, he will fill the twelfth slot of this special class of apostles once and for all. Bock, Darrell L.. Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) (Kindle Locations 2426-2431). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
The replacement was bot because of Judas' death (or the other martyred apostles ought to have been replaced), but because of his betrayal - a judgement for his actions, in part.
The detail differs from Matt. 27:3-10, leading to much discussion about what is said here and its relationship to what Matthew says. Matthew has Judas repent and try to return the money. When the return is refused, Judas tosses the money in the temple, and the priests use the proceeds to purchase the Field of Blood (see Acts 1:19). He then hangs himself (Matt. 27:5). Matthew sees in this a fulfillment of Zech. 11:13. There is no mention of Judas’s hanging or of his repentance in Acts. ...It is evident that Matthew tells his account not only to discuss Judas but also to focus on the Jewish leadership and critique them for their involvement in what the evangelist sees as an unrighteous act. This fits Matthew’s polemic against the leadership. Acts is interested only in Judas’s eventual fate, not in any intervening activity, including any regret Judas may have felt. Judas’s money led to the purchase of the field. Thus it may well be that, in a “causative” sense, he purchased the field. Bock, Darrell L.. Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) (Kindle Locations 2445-2452). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
or poured out, cf. 2:17
ver 18-19 Why do you think Matthew and Luke present their accounts of Judas' death so differently? Why does Luke comment about this death in such a way? Where else do we see "pouring/gushing out" happening in Acts? How do we know that Luke is not falsifying information? Is Peter saying this or Luke parethesizing this? How do we know?
Thus this event can be traditionally and socially verified by a large group of people and Luke records it. If it were false, Luke would be silly to mention it. The fact that he mentions Aramaic, etc. to Theophilus, tells us that this is Luke's commentary and not Peter speaking, since everyone with Peter knew Aramaic.
The main point here is that the office ( τὴν ἐπισκοπήν , tēn episkopēn) is open to be filled. This term refers to a “position of responsibility,” in this case the responsibility of Judas to be a key, event-grounded witness to Jesus, a role his betrayal forfeited. Luke-Acts has two of the four NT occurrences of the term: Luke 1:20; 19:44, where it refers to a visit; 1 Tim. 3:1; and 1 Pet. 2:12). Scripture and a mood of prayer have prompted this decision, which Luke sees as a legitimate act by the group as they await the Spirit’s coming. Bock, Darrell L.. Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) (Kindle Locations 2534-2539). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
ver 20-26 Why does Peter quote these 2 Psalms? What point is being made? What qualifications are needed for a replacement of Judas? Who are put forward? What do the disciples do next? When, in the text, was the replacement chosen? What ministry did the apostles have? Why do they cast lots now, but never again?
Again, it is necessary (cf. ver 16)
So Peter speaks of the current necessity (δεῖ, dei, it is necessary [present tense]) of replacing Judas. This appeal to necessity stands in contrast to the betrayal noted in verse 16, which uses ἔδει (edei, it was necessary). The replacement will restore the foundational group to twelve, as verse 26 indicates. This candidate must be a man qualified as a “witness to the resurrection,” one who accompanied them during the entire time the Lord Jesus was with them, from the baptism of John until the day he was “taken up” (ἀνελήμφθη, anelēmphthē; see Acts 1:2 for this term and 1:8 for μάρτυς, martys, witness). A figure of speech called a zeugma is present. It refers to a list that covers the A to Z of something to express the entirety of it. The replacement will have a complete experience of Jesus’s ministry and teaching, from the A (baptism of John) to the Z (ascension). Bock, Darrell L.. Acts (Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament) (Kindle Locations 2548-2557). Baker Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.
Lev. 16:8 and Josh. 18:6, 19:51, 23:4 1 Sam. 14:42; 1 Chron. 6:65; 24– 26 Neh. 10:34; 11:1; Isa. 34:17; and Jon. 1:7. Proverbs 16:33 It is interesting to note, however that in all the big-decision gatherings held from here on (post Pentecost, cf. Acts 6, 13), there is no casting of lots but only prayer. It appears that there is no need for lots to know God's will once the Holy Spirit indwelt believers.
REPLACING THE DESOLATE OFFICE (1:15-26) The Disciples' Submission to the Spirit in Scripture (1:15-22) 1:15 In the 10 days between Jesus' ascension and Pentecost, Peter takes the lead role among the approx. 120 gathered disciples in fixing the structure of the group because of Judas' apostasy 1:16 Peter sees that Judas' betrayal (Lk. 22:39-54) was in the revealed plan of God and not outside of his control by invoking Scripture - from the Holy Spirit through David. Even though they were not yet indwelt by the Spirit, the Holy Spirit is working through his revealed Scripture. 1:17 Peter gives 2 reasons to settle the matter and redistribute Judas' work — a. Judas was numbered among the 12, cf. Lk 22:3, 28-30; Matt 19:28 b. He shared in the service/ministry that the apostles were called to Luke's Commentary on Judas' Judgement ( 1:18-19 ) 1:18 (cf. Matt 27:3-10) Luke graphically describes Judas' end, primarily viewing it as a judgement from God, without recording his hanging/remorse. Judas here is seen as the cause of the field being bought. He is seen to fall prone in such a way that his intestines 'pour out' (cf. 2:17). This kind of gruesome public divine judgement is also recorded in Acts 5, 12:20-23. 1:19 The event was so popular, that the field is named in Aramaic (their own dialect) as 'Hakeldama' - the field of blood. The Disciples' Submission to the Spirit in Scripture [contd.] (1:20-22) 1:20 Peter uses two Davidic Psalms typically and prophetically. a. Ps 69:25 is a famous Messianic Psalm, which talks about the enemies of the Davidic king who calls for their judgement is used to show that judgement has befallen this enemy of righteous Jesus, leaving behind him a desolate field. b. Ps 109:8 is another lament from the Psalmist David, asking God for judgement against his oppressors —the point being that the oppressor's position of responsibility lies vacant for someone else to fill, after his judgement. 1:21-22 Therefore, again to fulfil Scripture, a man must take up Judas' place as a witness of the resurrection, and also one who knew the A-Z of Jesus' ministry on earth (John's baptism to the ascension) God's Selection for Service (1:23-26) 1:23 The group puts forward Joseph/Justus/Barsabbas and Matthias, two figures never seen again 1:24 The group then submits the whole matter in prayer to God, the 'knower of all hearts' (cf. Acts 15:8; 1 Sam 16:7). He has already chosen. They ask him to show them now. 1:25 The purpose of the election (choosing) is to take the role of mission-witness and end-time-judgement (cf. Luke 22) —the apostolic ministry from which Judas turned away and 'went to his own place', i.e. a place different from the others, i.e. judgement. 1:26 The disciples use lots to determine God's revelation, a practise never seen again after the Spirit is poured out (see Acts 6,13), and God's selection is revealed —Matthias. Thus the twelve are restored. Will we endure in our faith - living by the Spirit poured out into us, or die judged, like Judas? Do we fear God's just punishment and judgement? Do we submit to Scripture? Do we know the breadth of it to know which way God is leading us? Are we as individuals and corporately a group of people that are in unity, obedience, prayer and seeking God's will? What do we learn about the church and God, which can lead us to trust him more and live by faith everyday?