Jesus Before Pilate 28 q Then they led Jesus r from the house of Caiaphas to s the governor’s headquarters. 1 It was early morning. They themselves did not enter the governor’s headquarters, t so that they would not be defiled, u but could eat the Passover. 29 v So Pilate went outside to them and said, “What accusation do you bring against this man?” 30 They answered him, “If this man were not doing evil, we would not have delivered him over to you.” 31 Pilate said to them, w “Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.” The Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death.” 32 x This was to fulfill the word that Jesus had spoken y to show by what kind of death he was going to die. My Kingdom Is Not of This World 33 z So Pilate entered his headquarters again and called Jesus and said to him, a “Are you the King of the Jews?” 34 Jesus answered, “Do you say this of your own accord, or did others say it to you about me?” 35 Pilate answered, “Am I a Jew? Your own nation and the chief priests have delivered you over to me. What have you done?” 36 Jesus answered, b “My kingdom c is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this world, d my servants would have been fighting, that e I might not be delivered over to the Jews. But my kingdom is not from the world.” 37 Then Pilate said to him, “So you are a king?” Jesus answered, f “You say that I am a king. g For this purpose I was born and for this purpose h I have come into the world— i to bear witness to the truth. j Everyone who is k of the truth l listens to my voice.” 38 Pilate said to him, “What is truth?” After he had said this, m he went back outside to the Jews and told them, n “I find no guilt in him. 39 o But you have a custom that I should release one man for you at the Passover. So do you want me to release to you the King of the Jews?” 40 They cried out again, p “Not this man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber. 1 Jesus Delivered to Be Crucified 19 1 Then Pilate took Jesus and q flogged him. 2 r And the soldiers twisted together a crown of thorns and put it on his head and arrayed him in a purple robe. 3 They came up to him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews!” and struck him with their hands. 4 Pilate went out again and said to them, “See, I am bringing him out to you that you may know that s I find no guilt in him.” 5 So Jesus came out, wearing t the crown of thorns and the purple robe. Pilate said to them, u “Behold the man!” 6 When the chief priests and the officers saw him, they cried out, “Crucify him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, v “Take him yourselves and crucify him, for w I find no guilt in him.” 7 The Jews 1 answered him, “We have a law, and x according to that law he ought to die because y he has made himself the Son of God.” 8 When Pilate heard this statement, z he was even more afraid. 9 a He entered his headquarters again and said to Jesus, b “Where are you from?” But c Jesus gave him no answer. 10 So Pilate said to him, “You will not speak to me? Do you not know that I have authority to release you and authority to crucify you?” 11 Jesus answered him, d “You would have no authority over me at all unless it had been given you from above. Therefore e he who delivered me over to you f has the greater sin.” 12 From then on g Pilate sought to release him, but the Jews cried out, “If you release this man, you are not Caesar’s friend. h Everyone who makes himself a king opposes Caesar.” 13 So when Pilate heard these words, he brought Jesus out and sat down on i the judgment seat at a place called The Stone Pavement, and in Aramaic 1 Gabbatha. 14 Now it was j the day of Preparation of the Passover. It was about the sixth hour. 1 He said to the Jews, k “Behold your King!” 15 They cried out, l “Away with him, away with him, crucify him!” Pilate said to them, “Shall I crucify your King?” The chief priests answered, “We have no king but Caesar.” 16 m So he n delivered him over to them to be crucified. The Crucifixion So they took Jesus,
28 Ἄγουσιν οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν ἀπὸ τοῦ Καϊάφα εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον• ἦν δὲ πρωΐ• * καὶ αὐτοὶ οὐκ εἰσῆλθον εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον, ἵνα μὴ μιανθῶσιν ἀλλὰ φάγωσιν τὸ πάσχα. 29 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἔξω πρὸς αὐτοὺς καὶ φησίν• τίνα κατηγορίαν φέρετε [κατὰ] τοῦ ἀνθρώπου τούτου; 30 ἀπεκρίθησαν καὶ εἶπαν αὐτῷ• εἰ μὴ ἦν οὗτος κακὸν ποιῶν, οὐκ ἄν σοι παρεδώκαμεν αὐτόν. 31 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος• λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὑμῶν κρίνατε αὐτόν. εἶπον αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι• ἡμῖν οὐκ ἔξεστιν ἀποκτεῖναι οὐδένα• 32 ἵνα ὁ λόγος τοῦ Ἰησοῦ πληρωθῇ ὃν εἶπεν σημαίνων ποίῳ θανάτῳ ἤμελλεν ἀποθνῄσκειν. 33 Εἰσῆλθεν οὖν πάλιν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ ἐφώνησεν τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῷ• σὺ εἶ ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 34 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς• ἀπὸ σεαυτοῦ σὺ τοῦτο λέγεις ἢ ἄλλοι εἶπόν σοι περὶ ἐμοῦ; 35 ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Πιλᾶτος• μήτι ἐγὼ Ἰουδαῖός εἰμι; τὸ ἔθνος τὸ σὸν καὶ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς παρέδωκάν σε ἐμοί• τί ἐποίησας; 36 ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς• ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου• εἰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου τούτου ἦν ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμή, οἱ ὑπηρέται οἱ ἐμοὶ ἠγωνίζοντο [ἂν] ἵνα μὴ παραδοθῶ τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις• νῦν δὲ ἡ βασιλεία ἡ ἐμὴ οὐκ ἔστιν ἐντεῦθεν. 37 εἶπεν οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος• οὐκοῦν βασιλεὺς εἶ σύ; ἀπεκρίθη ὁ Ἰησοῦς• σὺ λέγεις ὅτι βασιλεύς εἰμι. ἐγὼ εἰς τοῦτο γεγέννημαι καὶ εἰς τοῦτο ἐλήλυθα εἰς τὸν κόσμον, ἵνα μαρτυρήσω τῇ ἀληθείᾳ• πᾶς ὁ ὢν ἐκ τῆς ἀληθείας ἀκούει μου τῆς φωνῆς. 38 λέγει αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος• τί ἐστιν ἀλήθεια; Καὶ τοῦτο εἰπὼν πάλιν ἐξῆλθεν πρὸς τοὺς Ἰουδαίους καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς• ἐγὼ οὐδεμίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 39 ἔστιν δὲ συνήθεια ὑμῖν ἵνα ἕνα ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν ἐν τῷ πάσχα• βούλεσθε οὖν ἀπολύσω ὑμῖν τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰουδαίων; 40 ἐκραύγασαν οὖν πάλιν λέγοντες• μὴ τοῦτον ἀλλὰ τὸν Βαραββᾶν. ἦν δὲ ὁ Βαραββᾶς λῃστής. 19 1 Τότε οὖν ἔλαβεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐμαστίγωσεν. 2 καὶ οἱ στρατιῶται πλέξαντες στέφανον ἐξ ἀκανθῶν ἐπέθηκαν αὐτοῦ τῇ κεφαλῇ καὶ ἱμάτιον πορφυροῦν περιέβαλον αὐτὸν 3 καὶ ἤρχοντο πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ ἔλεγον• χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεὺς τῶν Ἰουδαίων• καὶ ἐδίδοσαν αὐτῷ ῥαπίσματα. 4 Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν πάλιν ἔξω ὁ Πιλᾶτος καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς• ἴδε ἄγω ὑμῖν αὐτὸν ἔξω, ἵνα γνῶτε ὅτι οὐδεμίαν αἰτίαν εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ. 5 ἐξῆλθεν οὖν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἔξω, φορῶν τὸν ἀκάνθινον στέφανον καὶ τὸ πορφυροῦν ἱμάτιον. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς• ἰδοὺ ὁ ἄνθρωπος. 6 Ὅτε οὖν εἶδον αὐτὸν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ οἱ ὑπηρέται ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες• σταύρωσον σταύρωσον. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος• λάβετε αὐτὸν ὑμεῖς καὶ σταυρώσατε• * ἐγὼ γὰρ οὐχ εὑρίσκω ἐν αὐτῷ αἰτίαν. 7 ἀπεκρίθησαν αὐτῷ οἱ Ἰουδαῖοι• ἡμεῖς νόμον ἔχομεν καὶ κατὰ τὸν νόμον ὀφείλει ἀποθανεῖν, ὅτι υἱὸν θεοῦ ἑαυτὸν ἐποίησεν. 8 Ὅτε οὖν ἤκουσεν ὁ Πιλᾶτος τοῦτον τὸν λόγον, μᾶλλον ἐφοβήθη, 9 καὶ εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὸ πραιτώριον πάλιν καὶ λέγει τῷ Ἰησοῦ• πόθεν εἶ σύ; ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς ἀπόκρισιν οὐκ ἔδωκεν αὐτῷ. 10 λέγει οὖν αὐτῷ ὁ Πιλᾶτος• ἐμοὶ οὐ λαλεῖς; οὐκ οἶδας ὅτι ἐξουσίαν ἔχω ἀπολῦσαί σε καὶ ἐξουσίαν ἔχω σταυρῶσαί σε; 11 ἀπεκρίθη [αὐτῷ] Ἰησοῦς• οὐκ εἶχες ἐξουσίαν κατʼ ἐμοῦ οὐδεμίαν εἰ μὴ ἦν δεδομένον σοι ἄνωθεν• διὰ τοῦτο ὁ παραδούς μέ σοι μείζονα ἁμαρτίαν ἔχει. 12 ἐκ τούτου ὁ Πιλᾶτος ἐζήτει ἀπολῦσαι αὐτόν• οἱ δὲ Ἰουδαῖοι ἐκραύγασαν λέγοντες• ἐὰν τοῦτον ἀπολύσῃς, οὐκ εἶ φίλος τοῦ Καίσαρος• πᾶς ὁ βασιλέα ἑαυτὸν ποιῶν ἀντιλέγει τῷ Καίσαρι. 13 ὁ οὖν Πιλᾶτος ἀκούσας τῶν λόγων τούτων ἤγαγεν ἔξω τὸν Ἰησοῦν καὶ ἐκάθισεν ἐπὶ βήματος εἰς τόπον λεγόμενον Λιθόστρωτον, Ἑβραϊστὶ δὲ Γαββαθα. 14 ἦν δὲ παρασκευὴ τοῦ πάσχα, ὥρα ἦν ὡς ἕκτη. καὶ λέγει τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις• ἴδε ὁ βασιλεὺς ὑμῶν. 15 ἐκραύγασαν οὖν ἐκεῖνοι• ἆρον ἆρον, σταύρωσον αὐτόν. * λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Πιλᾶτος• τὸν βασιλέα ὑμῶν σταυρώσω; ἀπεκρίθησαν οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς• οὐκ ἔχομεν βασιλέα εἰ μὴ Καίσαρα. 16 Τότε οὖν παρέδωκεν αὐτὸν αὐτοῖς ἵνα σταυρωθῇ. Παρέλαβον οὖν τὸν Ἰησοῦν,
Behold your King! Intro : Culturally, we can't conceive of power that is truly trustworthy. 'Ethic of power and ethic of love'. But what if the absolute reality is an absolute power who uses it only for love? What if there's proof? Jesus is a king we don't recognise because he is outside all our categories. 'Was crucified under Pontius Pilate...'; this really happened, and Christianity stands or falls on it. The political backdrop is important to know; relationship between Jewish leaders and Rome/Pilate. The Jews need to persuade Pilate if they are to have Jesus killed. And in the whole process, the 'world', and its collective hatred of God, is revealed. 1. False charges are brought against Jesus, while a confirmed rebel is freed (18.28-40) v28 forms vs functions again. The irony; so they wouldn't be defiled! Rather have a righteousness of their own. [How did Pilate feel being woken in the night about this?] v30 self-referencing non-answer, which purely is about power. v32 fulfil - the cross, not stoning. He will be 'lifted up'. v33 why does Pilate lead with this? Presume some backstory to this, which is why he had given Roman soldiers to go and arrest Jesus. The Jews have chosen the 'king' point as the one which they think they can get Pilate to condemn Jesus over, even though their primary hatred of Jesus was for rocking their theological system. Ironic statement, in greek. NB King of the Jews means both 'the king to reign over the Jews' and 'the King who has come from out of the Jews'. v34 what's the premise; what kind of kingship. v36 crucial reference point theologically. The 'from-ness' controls the means and method. Since we're not of the world, we don't live or fight like the world does. v37 more irony. And NB comment on the Message paraphrase. v37 for this purpose I was born...to bear witness to the truth. Truth, not abstract, but the personal knowledge of God. Those 'of truth' listen to the Son's voice. v38 what is truth. Pluralism and postmodernism is really nothing new. His actions show that, when you don't really believe anything you'll fall for anything. v38 statement 1 of no guilt. v39-40 the swap is shown here; dramatically heightens what is happening at a deeper and bigger level. The unrighteous is going free because the righteous is condemned. 'Robber' - more accurately, murderous rebel. FCF. Doing all we possibly can to preserve our own self-rule, since we insistently assume that Jesus' rule must threaten ours. H1. Whatever makes for an easier life, self-protection - like Pilate. H2. The power play of the Pharisees, to make out that Jesus is a king-pretender, to suit their own agenda. From their own mouths, 'we have no King but Caesar'. 2. Jesus is the King we don't recognise (19.1-16a) v1 why the violence. Going along with the false narrative that Jesus is a dangerous criminal who must be punished. cf Carson; quite possibly Jesus was flogged twice. Once, as here, in Pilate's hope that this would settle things with the Jews. Again after condemnation to crucifixion as part of the execution package - as the synoptics. v2 ironic coronation; crown of thorns, mockery in purple. They hail him as the King of the Jews. v4 statement 2 of no guilt. v5 behold the man, ecce homo. Significance in Bible storyline ('who will ascend the hill of the LORD?'). Significance in art and music. For all of us, this is the vision we need to see; the name of God revealed in his generous, willing self-giving love. A crown of thorns is how he reigns. v6 statement 3 of no guilt. v7 is this true? You have to grant the premise in order then to justify their actions. Built upon a lie. NB the parallels in which we make one faulty premise, and then condemn people. v8-10 why does Jesus not speak. Partly, fulfilling Isaiah 53 . Also because there is nothing left to say. v11-12 Pilate recognises Jesus is a wise man who does not deserve to die. cf Daniel and Darius. v12 they manipulate him by the appeal to power and fear. This is fear of man; NB how strongly it works on those in power. People want to become powerful so that they (think) they won't be afraid of people anymore. But there is simply more to lose when you have power, which people can then manipulate. [E.g. 'Impostor syndrome' and thus fear of loss of position among the super-powerful]. v14 what would normally be happening at the 6th hour on Friday before Passover? Slaughter of the sacrificial lamb. What about Mark 15 . 25 which say they crucified him at the 3rd hour and darkness came at the 6th hour? NB John says 'about'. v14 behold your King! Ironic statement. Another irony; he is displayed, crowned as king, before the crowds. Significance in Bible storyline. And cf 12.15 we have already met it. They didn't understand his gentle lowliness at the time. See his glory! v15 we have no king but Caesar; he is a proxy, convenient king for them. So that they can do what they want. Loyalties can be so expedient; when your ultimate loyalty is the world. Indeed, here is the clear display that self-righteous religion is just worldliness when pushed and threatened. Person of Jesus. He is the 'unclean' one, in the Gentile house on the passover. He is declared repeatedly to be innocent, and to be a king. Work of Jesus . He swaps with Barabbas, the rebel. Union with Jesus. In him we have the forgiveness of sins, we are justified. Invitation . Come and be declared innocent, give him your guilt. Come and follow this king of love. Confrontation . Stop chasing self-rule, stop engineering situations to hold on to it. Consolation . Behold your King! A king of love. Wrap up: Culturally, we can't conceive of power that is truly trustworthy. 'Ethic of power and ethic of love'. But what if the absolute reality is an absolute power who uses it only for love? What if there's proof? Jesus is a king we don't recognise because he is outside all our categories. Behold our King!